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path: root/modules/ctrl_tcp/netstring/netstring.c
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/* Streaming API for netstrings. */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <math.h>
#include "netstring.h"


const char* netstring_error_str(netstring_error err)
{
	switch (err) {
		case NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_LONG:
			return "NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_LONG";
		case NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_COLON:
			return "NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_COLON";
		case NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_SHORT:
			return "NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_SHORT";
		case NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_COMMA:
			return "NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_COMMA";
		case NETSTRING_ERROR_LEADING_ZERO:
			return "NETSTRING_ERROR_LEADING_ZERO";
		case NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_LENGTH:
			return "NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_LENGTH";
		default:
			return "NETSTRING_ERROR_UNKNOWN";
	}
}


/**
 * Reads a netstring from a `buffer` of length `buffer_length`. Writes
 * to `netstring_start` a pointer to the beginning of the string in
 * the buffer, and to `netstring_length` the length of the
 * string. Does not allocate any memory. If it reads successfully,
 * then it returns 0. If there is an error, then the return value will
 * be negative. The error values are:

 * NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_LONG      More than 999999999 bytes in a field
 * NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_COLON      No colon was found after the number
 * NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_SHORT     Number of bytes greater than buffer length
 * NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_COMMA      No comma was found at the end
 * NETSTRING_ERROR_LEADING_ZERO  Leading zeros are not allowed
 * NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_LENGTH     Length not given at start of netstring

 * If you're sending messages with more than 999999999 bytes -- about
 * 2 GB -- then you probably should not be doing so in the form of a
 * single netstring. This restriction is in place partially to protect
 * from malicious or erroneous input, and partly to be compatible with
 * D. J. Bernstein's reference implementation.

 * Example:
 *    if (netstring_read("3:foo,", 6, &str, &len) < 0) explode_and_die();
 */
int netstring_read(char *buffer, size_t buffer_length,
		char **netstring_start, size_t *netstring_length)
{
	size_t i;
	size_t len = 0;

	/* Write default values for outputs */
	*netstring_start = NULL; *netstring_length = 0;

	/* Make sure buffer is big enough. Minimum size is 3. */
	if (buffer_length < 3)
		return NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_SHORT;

	/* No leading zeros allowed! */
	if (buffer[0] == '0' && isdigit(buffer[1]))
		return NETSTRING_ERROR_LEADING_ZERO;

	/* The netstring must start with a number */
	if (!isdigit(buffer[0]))
		return NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_LENGTH;

	/* Read the number of bytes */
	for (i = 0; i < buffer_length && isdigit(buffer[i]); i++) {

		/* Error if more than 9 digits */
		if (i >= 9)
			return NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_LONG;

		/* Accumulate each digit, assuming ASCII. */
		len = len*10 + (buffer[i] - '0');
	}

	/**
	 * Check buffer length. The buffer must be longer than the sum of:
	 *   - the number we've read.
	 *   - the length of the string itself.
	 *   - the colon.
	 *   - the comma.
	 */
	if (i + len + 1 >= buffer_length)
		return NETSTRING_ERROR_TOO_SHORT;

	/* Read the colon */
	if (buffer[i++] != ':')
		return NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_COLON;

	/* Test for the trailing comma, and set the return values */
	if (buffer[i + len] != ',')
		return NETSTRING_ERROR_NO_COMMA;

	*netstring_start = &buffer[i]; *netstring_length = len;

	return 0;
}

/**
 * Return the number of digits represented in the given number.
 * We are assuming that the input is not bigger than NETSTRING_MAX_SIZE.
 */
size_t netstring_num_len(size_t num)
{
	char num_str[10];

	sprintf(num_str, "%zu", num);

	return strlen(num_str);
}

/**
 * Return the length, in ASCII characters, of a netstring containing
 * `data_length` bytes.
 */
size_t netstring_buffer_size(size_t data_length)
{
	if (data_length == 0)
		return 3;

	return netstring_num_len(data_length) + data_length + 2;
}

/*
 * Allocate and create a netstring containing the first `len` bytes of `data`.
 * This must be manually freed by the client.
 * If `len` is 0 then no data will be read from `data`, and it may be NULL.
 */
size_t netstring_encode_new(char **netstring, char *data, size_t len)
{
	char *ns;
	size_t num_len = 1;

	if (len == 0) {
		ns = malloc(3);
		ns[0] = '0';
		ns[1] = ':';
		ns[2] = ',';
	}
	else {
		num_len = netstring_num_len(len);
		ns = malloc(num_len + len + 2);
		sprintf(ns, "%lu:", (unsigned long)len);
		memcpy(ns + num_len + 1, data, len);
		ns[num_len + len + 1] = ',';
	}

	*netstring = ns;

	return num_len + len + 2;
}