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+btrfs-device - manage devices of btrfs filesystems
+*btrfs device* <subcommand> <args>
+The *btrfs device* command group is used to manage devices of the btrfs filesystems.
+Btrfs filesystem can be created on top of single or multiple block devices.
+Data and metadata are organized in allocation profiles with various redundancy
+policies. There's some similarity with traditional RAID levels, but this could
+be confusing to users familiar with the traditional meaning. Due to the
+similarity, the RAID terminology is widely used in the documentation. See
+`mkfs.btrfs`(9) for more details and the exact profile capabilities and
+The device management works on a mounted filesystem. Devices can be added,
+removed or replaced, by commands profided by *btrfs device* and *btrfs replace*.
+The profiles can be also changed, provided there's enough workspace to do the
+conversion, using the *btrfs balance* comand and namely the filter 'convert'.
+A profile describes an allocation policy based on the redundancy/replication
+constrants in connection with the number of devices. The profile applies to
+data and metadata block groups separately.
+Where applicable, the level refers to a profile that matches constraints of the
+standard RAID levels. At the moment the supported ones are: RAID0, RAID1,
+RAID10, RAID5 and RAID6.
+See the section *TYPICAL USECASES* for some examples.
+*add* [-Kf] <dev> [<dev>...] <path>::
+Add device(s) to the filesystem identified by <path>.
+If applicable, a whole device discard (TRIM) operation is performed prior to
+adding the device. A device with existing filesystem detected by `blkid`(8)
+will prevent device addition and has to be forced. Alternatively the filesystem
+can be wiped from the device using eg. the `wipefs`(8) tool.
+The operation is instant and does not affect existing data. The operation merely
+adds the device to the filesystem structures and creates some block groups
+do not perform discard (TRIM) by default
+force overwrite of existing filesystem on the given disk(s)
+*remove* <dev>|<devid> [<dev>|<devid>...] <path>::
+Remove device(s) from a filesystem identified by <path>
+Device removal must satisfy the profile constraints, otherwise the command
+fails. The filesystem must be converted to profile(s) that would allow the
+removal. This can typically happen when going down from 2 devices to 1 and
+using the RAID1 profile. See the example section below.
+The operation can take long as it needs to move all data from the device.
+NOTE: It is not possible to delete the device that was used to mount the
+filesystem. This is a limitation given by the VFS.
+*delete* <dev>|<devid> [<dev>|<devid>...] <path>::
+Alias of remove kept for backward compatibility
+Wait until all devices of a multiple-device filesystem are scanned and registered
+within the kernel module.
+*scan* [(--all-devices|-d)|<device> [<device>...]]::
+Scan devices for a btrfs filesystem and register them with the kernel module.
+This allows mounting multiple-device filesystem by specifying just one from the
+If no devices are passed, all block devices that blkid reports to contain btrfs
+The options '--all-devices' or '-d' are deprecated and kept for backward compatibility.
+If used, behavior is the same as if no devices are passed.
+The command can be run repeatedly. Devices that have been already registered
+remain as such. Reloading the kernel module will drop this information. There's
+an alternative way of mounting multiple-device filesystem without the need for
+prior scanning. See the mount option 'device'.
+*stats* [-z] <path>|<device>::
+Read and print the device IO error statistics for all devices of the given
+filesystem identified by <path> or for a single <device>. See section *DEVICE
+STATS* for more information.
+Print the stats and reset the values to zero afterwards.
+*usage* [options] <path> [<path>...]::
+Show detailed information about internal allocations in devices.
+raw numbers in bytes, without the 'B' suffix
+print human friendly numbers, base 1024, this is the default
+print human friendly numbers, base 1000
+select the 1024 base for the following options, according to the IEC standard
+select the 1000 base for the following options, according to the SI standard
+show sizes in KiB, or kB with --si
+show sizes in MiB, or MB with --si
+show sizes in GiB, or GB with --si
+show sizes in TiB, or TB with --si
+If conflicting options are passed, the last one takes precedence.
+STARTING WITH A SINGLE-DEVICE FILESYSTEM
+Assume we've created a filesystem on a block device '/dev/sda' with profile
+'single/single' (data/metadata), the device size is 50GiB and we've used the
+whole device for the filesystem. The mount point is '/mnt'.
+The amount of data stored is 16GiB, metadata have allocated 2GiB.
+==== ADD NEW DEVICE ====
+We want to increase the total size of the filesystem and keep the profiles. The
+size of the new device '/dev/sdb' is 100GiB.
+ $ btrfs device add /dev/sdb /mnt
+The amount of free data space increases by less than 100GiB, some space is
+allocated for metadata.
+==== CONVERT TO RAID1 ====
+Now we want to increase the redundancy level of both data and metadata, but
+we'll do that in steps. Note, that the device sizes are not equal and we'll use
+that to show the capabilities of split data/metadata and independent profiles.
+The constraint for RAID1 gives us at most 50GiB of usable space and exactly 2
+copies will be stored on the devices.
+First we'll convert the metadata. As the metadata occupy less than 50GiB and
+there's enough workspace for the conversion process, we can do:
+ $ btrfs balance start -mconvert=raid1 /mnt
+This operation can take a while as the metadata have to be moved and all block
+pointers updated. Depending on the physical locations of the old and new
+blocks, the disk seeking is the key factor affecting performance.
+You'll note that the system block group has been also converted to RAID1, this
+normally happens as the system block group also holds metadata (the physical to
+* available data space decreased by 3GiB, usable rougly (50 - 3) + (100 - 3) = 144 GiB
+* metadata redundancy increased
+IOW, the unequal device sizes allow for combined space for data yet improved
+redundancy for metadata. If we decide to increase redundancy of data as well,
+we're going to lose 50GiB of the second device for obvious reasons.
+ $ btrfs balance start -dconvert=raid1 /mnt
+The balance process needs some workspace (ie. a free device space without any
+data or metadata block groups) so the command could fail if there's too much
+data or the block groups occupy the whole first device.
+The device size of '/dev/sdb' as seen by the filesystem remains unchanged, but
+the logical space from 50-100GiB will be unused.
+The device stats keep persistent record of several error classes related to
+doing IO. The current values are printed at mount time and updated during
+filesystem lifetime or from a scrub run.
+ $ btrfs device stats /dev/sda3
+ [/dev/sda3].write_io_errs 0
+ [/dev/sda3].read_io_errs 0
+ [/dev/sda3].flush_io_errs 0
+ [/dev/sda3].corruption_errs 0
+ [/dev/sda3].generation_errs 0
+Failed writes to the block devices, means that the layers beneath the
+filesystem were not able to satisfy the write request.
+Read request analogy to write_io_errs.
+Number of failed writes with the 'FLUSH' flag set. The flushing is a method of
+forcing a particular order between write requests and is crucial for
+implementing crash consistency. In case of btrfs, all the metadata blocks must
+be permanently stored on the block device before the superblock is written.
+A block checksum mismatched or a corrupted metadata header was found.
+The block generation does not match the expected value (eg. stored in the
+*btrfs device* returns a zero exit status if it succeeds. Non zero is
+returned in case of failure.
+*btrfs* is part of btrfs-progs.
+Please refer to the btrfs wiki http://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org for