summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/NEWS
blob: 262a0e105a32ce87a5ea4b4b00fcdeb246c2bf5c (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290
4291
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604
4605
4606
4607
4608
4609
4610
4611
4612
4613
4614
4615
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668
4669
4670
4671
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699
4700
4701
4702
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724
4725
4726
4727
4728
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746
4747
4748
4749
4750
4751
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757
4758
4759
4760
4761
4762
4763
4764
4765
4766
4767
4768
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782
4783
4784
4785
4786
4787
4788
4789
4790
4791
4792
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797
4798
4799
4800
4801
4802
4803
4804
4805
4806
4807
4808
4809
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814
4815
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820
4821
4822
4823
4824
4825
4826
4827
4828
4829
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836
4837
4838
4839
4840
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845
4846
4847
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
4857
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4867
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
4873
4874
4875
4876
4877
4878
4879
4880
4881
4882
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887
4888
4889
4890
4891
4892
4893
4894
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910
4911
4912
4913
4914
4915
4916
4917
4918
4919
4920
4921
4922
4923
4924
4925
4926
4927
4928
4929
4930
4931
4932
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
4939
4940
4941
4942
4943
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948
4949
4950
4951
4952
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
4965
4966
4967
4968
4969
4970
4971
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055
5056
5057
5058
5059
5060
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070
5071
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076
5077
5078
5079
5080
5081
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089
5090
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
5097
5098
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5106
5107
5108
5109
5110
5111
5112
5113
5114
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119
5120
5121
5122
5123
5124
5125
5126
5127
5128
5129
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134
5135
5136
5137
5138
5139
5140
5141
5142
5143
5144
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160
5161
5162
5163
5164
5165
5166
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
5173
5174
5175
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225
5226
5227
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5233
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238
5239
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244
5245
5246
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288
5289
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336
5337
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349
5350
5351
5352
5353
5354
5355
5356
5357
5358
5359
5360
5361
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366
5367
5368
5369
5370
5371
5372
5373
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378
5379
5380
5381
5382
5383
5384
5385
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390
5391
5392
5393
5394
5395
5396
5397
5398
5399
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411
5412
5413
5414
5415
5416
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432
5433
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438
5439
5440
5441
5442
5443
5444
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
5451
5452
5453
5454
5455
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460
5461
5462
5463
5464
5465
5466
5467
5468
5469
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474
5475
5476
5477
5478
5479
5480
5481
5482
5483
5484
5485
5486
5487
5488
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494
5495
5496
5497
5498
5499
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515
5516
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522
5523
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528
5529
5530
5531
5532
5533
5534
5535
5536
5537
5538
5539
5540
5541
5542
5543
5544
5545
5546
5547
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552
5553
5554
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561
5562
5563
5564
5565
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5605
5606
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613
5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620
5621
5622
5623
5624
5625
5626
5627
5628
5629
5630
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640
5641
5642
5643
5644
5645
5646
5647
5648
5649
5650
5651
5652
5653
5654
5655
5656
5657
5658
5659
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666
5667
5668
5669
5670
5671
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
5683
5684
5685
5686
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699
5700
5701
5702
5703
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708
5709
5710
5711
5712
5713
5714
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719
5720
5721
5722
5723
5724
5725
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730
5731
5732
5733
5734
5735
5736
5737
5738
5739
5740
5741
5742
5743
5744
5745
5746
5747
5748
5749
5750
5751
5752
5753
5754
5755
5756
5757
5758
5759
5760
5761
5762
5763
5764
5765
5766
5767
5768
5769
5770
5771
5772
5773
5774
5775
5776
5777
5778
5779
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784
5785
5786
5787
5788
5789
5790
5791
5792
5793
5794
5795
5796
5797
5798
5799
5800
5801
5802
5803
5804
5805
5806
5807
5808
5809
5810
5811
5812
5813
5814
5815
5816
5817
5818
5819
5820
5821
5822
5823
5824
5825
5826
5827
5828
5829
5830
5831
5832
5833
5834
5835
5836
5837
5838
5839
5840
5841
5842
5843
5844
5845
5846
5847
5848
5849
5850
5851
5852
5853
5854
5855
5856
5857
5858
5859
5860
5861
5862
5863
5864
5865
5866
5867
5868
5869
5870
5871
5872
5873
5874
5875
5876
5877
5878
5879
5880
5881
5882
5883
5884
5885
5886
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891
5892
5893
5894
5895
5896
5897
5898
5899
5900
5901
5902
5903
5904
5905
5906
5907
5908
5909
5910
5911
5912
5913
5914
5915
5916
5917
5918
5919
5920
5921
5922
5923
5924
5925
5926
5927
5928
5929
5930
5931
5932
5933
5934
5935
5936
5937
5938
5939
5940
5941
5942
5943
5944
5945
5946
5947
5948
5949
5950
5951
5952
5953
5954
5955
5956
5957
5958
5959
5960
5961
5962
5963
5964
5965
5966
5967
5968
5969
5970
5971
5972
5973
5974
5975
5976
5977
5978
5979
5980
5981
5982
5983
5984
5985
5986
5987
5988
5989
5990
5991
5992
5993
5994
5995
5996
5997
5998
5999
6000
6001
6002
6003
6004
6005
6006
6007
6008
6009
6010
6011
6012
6013
6014
6015
6016
6017
6018
6019
6020
6021
6022
6023
6024
6025
6026
6027
6028
6029
6030
6031
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036
6037
6038
6039
6040
6041
6042
6043
6044
6045
6046
6047
6048
6049
6050
6051
6052
6053
6054
6055
6056
6057
6058
6059
6060
6061
6062
6063
6064
6065
6066
6067
6068
6069
6070
6071
6072
6073
6074
6075
6076
6077
6078
6079
6080
6081
6082
6083
6084
6085
6086
6087
6088
6089
6090
6091
6092
6093
6094
6095
6096
6097
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102
6103
6104
6105
6106
6107
6108
6109
6110
6111
6112
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118
6119
6120
6121
6122
6123
6124
6125
6126
6127
6128
6129
6130
6131
6132
6133
6134
6135
6136
6137
6138
6139
6140
6141
6142
6143
6144
6145
6146
6147
6148
6149
6150
6151
6152
6153
6154
6155
6156
6157
6158
6159
6160
6161
6162
6163
6164
6165
6166
6167
6168
6169
6170
6171
6172
6173
6174
6175
6176
6177
6178
6179
6180
6181
6182
6183
6184
6185
6186
6187
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192
6193
6194
6195
6196
6197
6198
6199
6200
6201
6202
6203
6204
6205
6206
6207
6208
6209
6210
6211
6212
6213
6214
6215
6216
6217
6218
6219
6220
6221
6222
6223
6224
6225
6226
6227
6228
6229
6230
6231
6232
6233
6234
6235
6236
6237
6238
6239
6240
6241
6242
6243
6244
6245
6246
6247
6248
6249
6250
6251
6252
6253
6254
6255
6256
6257
6258
6259
6260
6261
6262
6263
6264
6265
6266
6267
6268
6269
6270
6271
6272
6273
6274
6275
6276
6277
6278
6279
6280
6281
6282
6283
6284
6285
6286
6287
6288
6289
6290
6291
6292
6293
6294
6295
6296
6297
6298
6299
6300
6301
6302
6303
6304
6305
6306
6307
6308
6309
6310
6311
6312
6313
6314
6315
6316
6317
6318
6319
6320
6321
6322
6323
6324
6325
6326
6327
6328
6329
6330
6331
6332
6333
6334
6335
6336
6337
6338
6339
6340
6341
6342
6343
6344
6345
6346
6347
6348
6349
6350
6351
6352
6353
6354
6355
6356
6357
6358
6359
6360
6361
6362
6363
6364
6365
6366
6367
6368
6369
6370
6371
6372
6373
6374
6375
6376
6377
6378
6379
6380
6381
6382
6383
6384
6385
6386
6387
6388
6389
6390
6391
6392
6393
6394
6395
6396
6397
6398
6399
6400
6401
6402
6403
6404
6405
6406
6407
6408
6409
6410
6411
6412
6413
6414
6415
6416
6417
6418
6419
6420
6421
6422
6423
6424
6425
6426
6427
6428
6429
6430
6431
6432
6433
6434
6435
6436
6437
6438
6439
6440
6441
6442
6443
6444
6445
6446
6447
6448
6449
6450
6451
6452
6453
6454
6455
6456
6457
6458
6459
6460
6461
6462
6463
6464
6465
6466
6467
6468
6469
6470
6471
6472
6473
6474
6475
6476
6477
6478
6479
6480
6481
6482
6483
6484
6485
6486
6487
6488
6489
6490
6491
6492
6493
6494
6495
6496
6497
6498
6499
6500
6501
6502
6503
6504
6505
6506
6507
6508
6509
6510
6511
6512
6513
6514
6515
6516
6517
6518
6519
6520
6521
6522
6523
6524
6525
6526
6527
6528
6529
6530
6531
6532
6533
6534
6535
6536
6537
6538
6539
6540
6541
6542
6543
6544
6545
6546
6547
6548
6549
6550
6551
6552
6553
6554
6555
6556
6557
6558
6559
6560
6561
6562
6563
6564
6565
6566
6567
6568
6569
6570
6571
6572
6573
6574
6575
6576
6577
6578
6579
6580
6581
6582
6583
6584
6585
6586
6587
6588
6589
6590
6591
6592
6593
6594
6595
6596
6597
6598
6599
6600
6601
6602
6603
6604
6605
6606
6607
6608
6609
6610
6611
6612
6613
6614
6615
6616
6617
6618
6619
6620
6621
6622
6623
6624
6625
6626
6627
6628
6629
6630
6631
6632
6633
6634
6635
6636
6637
6638
6639
6640
6641
6642
6643
6644
6645
6646
6647
6648
6649
6650
6651
6652
6653
6654
6655
6656
6657
6658
6659
6660
6661
6662
6663
6664
6665
6666
6667
6668
6669
6670
6671
6672
6673
6674
6675
6676
6677
6678
6679
6680
6681
6682
6683
6684
6685
6686
6687
6688
6689
6690
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695
6696
6697
6698
6699
6700
6701
6702
6703
6704
6705
6706
6707
6708
6709
6710
6711
6712
6713
6714
6715
6716
6717
6718
6719
6720
6721
6722
6723
6724
6725
6726
6727
6728
6729
6730
6731
6732
6733
6734
6735
6736
6737
6738
6739
6740
6741
6742
6743
6744
6745
6746
6747
6748
6749
6750
6751
6752
6753
6754
6755
6756
6757
6758
6759
6760
6761
6762
6763
6764
6765
6766
6767
6768
6769
6770
6771
6772
6773
6774
6775
6776
6777
6778
6779
6780
6781
6782
6783
6784
6785
6786
6787
6788
6789
6790
6791
6792
6793
6794
6795
6796
6797
6798
6799
6800
6801
6802
6803
6804
6805
6806
6807
6808
6809
6810
6811
6812
6813
6814
6815
6816
6817
6818
6819
6820
6821
6822
6823
6824
6825
6826
6827
6828
6829
6830
6831
6832
6833
6834
6835
6836
6837
6838
6839
6840
6841
6842
6843
6844
6845
6846
6847
6848
6849
6850
6851
6852
6853
6854
6855
6856
6857
6858
6859
6860
6861
6862
6863
6864
6865
6866
6867
6868
6869
6870
6871
6872
6873
6874
6875
6876
6877
6878
6879
6880
6881
6882
6883
6884
6885
6886
6887
6888
6889
6890
6891
6892
6893
6894
6895
6896
6897
6898
6899
6900
6901
6902
6903
6904
6905
6906
6907
6908
6909
6910
6911
6912
6913
6914
6915
6916
6917
6918
6919
6920
6921
6922
6923
6924
6925
6926
6927
6928
6929
6930
6931
6932
6933
6934
6935
6936
6937
6938
6939
6940
6941
6942
6943
6944
6945
6946
6947
6948
6949
6950
6951
6952
6953
6954
6955
6956
6957
6958
6959
6960
6961
6962
6963
6964
6965
6966
6967
6968
6969
6970
6971
6972
6973
6974
6975
6976
6977
6978
6979
6980
6981
6982
6983
6984
6985
6986
6987
6988
6989
6990
6991
6992
6993
6994
6995
6996
6997
6998
6999
7000
7001
7002
7003
7004
7005
7006
7007
7008
7009
7010
7011
7012
7013
7014
7015
7016
7017
7018
7019
7020
7021
7022
7023
7024
7025
7026
7027
7028
7029
7030
7031
7032
7033
7034
7035
7036
7037
7038
7039
7040
7041
7042
7043
7044
7045
7046
7047
7048
7049
7050
7051
7052
7053
7054
7055
7056
7057
7058
7059
7060
7061
7062
7063
7064
7065
7066
7067
7068
7069
7070
7071
7072
7073
7074
7075
7076
7077
7078
7079
7080
7081
7082
7083
7084
7085
7086
7087
7088
7089
7090
7091
7092
7093
7094
7095
7096
7097
7098
7099
7100
7101
7102
7103
7104
7105
7106
7107
7108
7109
7110
7111
7112
7113
7114
7115
7116
7117
7118
7119
7120
7121
7122
7123
7124
7125
7126
7127
7128
7129
7130
7131
7132
7133
7134
7135
7136
7137
7138
7139
7140
7141
7142
7143
7144
7145
7146
7147
7148
7149
7150
7151
7152
7153
7154
7155
7156
7157
7158
7159
7160
7161
7162
7163
7164
7165
7166
7167
7168
7169
7170
7171
7172
7173
7174
7175
7176
7177
7178
7179
7180
7181
7182
7183
7184
7185
7186
7187
7188
7189
7190
7191
7192
7193
7194
7195
7196
7197
7198
7199
7200
7201
7202
7203
7204
7205
7206
7207
7208
7209
7210
7211
7212
7213
7214
7215
7216
7217
7218
7219
7220
7221
7222
7223
7224
7225
7226
7227
7228
7229
7230
7231
7232
7233
7234
7235
7236
7237
7238
7239
7240
7241
7242
7243
7244
7245
7246
7247
7248
7249
7250
7251
7252
7253
7254
7255
7256
7257
7258
7259
7260
7261
7262
7263
7264
7265
7266
7267
7268
7269
7270
7271
7272
7273
7274
7275
7276
7277
7278
7279
7280
7281
7282
7283
7284
7285
7286
7287
7288
7289
7290
7291
7292
7293
7294
7295
7296
7297
7298
7299
7300
7301
7302
7303
7304
7305
7306
7307
7308
7309
7310
7311
7312
7313
7314
7315
7316
7317
7318
7319
7320
7321
7322
7323
7324
7325
7326
7327
7328
7329
7330
7331
7332
7333
7334
7335
7336
7337
7338
7339
7340
7341
7342
7343
7344
7345
7346
7347
7348
7349
7350
7351
7352
7353
7354
7355
7356
7357
7358
7359
7360
7361
7362
7363
7364
7365
7366
7367
7368
7369
7370
7371
7372
7373
7374
7375
7376
7377
7378
7379
7380
7381
7382
7383
7384
7385
7386
7387
7388
7389
7390
7391
7392
7393
7394
7395
7396
7397
7398
7399
7400
7401
7402
7403
7404
7405
7406
7407
7408
7409
7410
7411
7412
7413
7414
7415
7416
7417
7418
7419
7420
7421
7422
7423
7424
7425
7426
7427
7428
7429
7430
7431
7432
7433
7434
7435
7436
7437
7438
7439
7440
7441
7442
7443
7444
7445
7446
7447
7448
7449
7450
7451
7452
7453
7454
7455
7456
7457
7458
7459
7460
7461
7462
7463
7464
7465
7466
7467
7468
7469
7470
7471
7472
7473
7474
7475
7476
7477
7478
7479
7480
7481
7482
7483
7484
7485
7486
7487
7488
7489
7490
7491
7492
7493
7494
7495
7496
7497
7498
7499
7500
7501
7502
7503
7504
7505
7506
7507
7508
7509
7510
7511
7512
7513
7514
7515
7516
7517
7518
7519
7520
7521
7522
7523
7524
7525
7526
7527
7528
7529
7530
7531
7532
7533
7534
7535
7536
7537
7538
7539
7540
7541
7542
7543
7544
7545
7546
7547
7548
7549
7550
7551
7552
7553
7554
7555
7556
7557
7558
7559
7560
7561
7562
7563
7564
7565
7566
7567
7568
7569
7570
7571
7572
7573
7574
7575
7576
7577
7578
7579
7580
7581
7582
7583
7584
7585
7586
7587
7588
7589
7590
7591
7592
7593
7594
7595
7596
7597
7598
7599
7600
7601
7602
7603
7604
7605
7606
7607
7608
7609
7610
7611
7612
7613
7614
7615
7616
7617
7618
7619
7620
7621
7622
7623
7624
7625
7626
7627
7628
7629
7630
7631
7632
7633
7634
7635
7636
7637
7638
7639
7640
7641
7642
7643
7644
7645
7646
7647
7648
7649
7650
7651
7652
7653
7654
7655
7656
7657
7658
7659
7660
7661
7662
7663
7664
7665
7666
7667
7668
7669
7670
7671
7672
7673
7674
7675
7676
7677
7678
7679
7680
7681
7682
7683
7684
7685
7686
7687
7688
7689
7690
7691
7692
7693
7694
7695
7696
7697
7698
7699
7700
7701
7702
7703
7704
7705
7706
7707
7708
7709
7710
7711
7712
7713
7714
7715
7716
7717
7718
7719
7720
7721
7722
7723
7724
7725
7726
7727
7728
7729
7730
7731
7732
7733
7734
7735
7736
7737
7738
7739
7740
7741
7742
7743
7744
7745
7746
7747
7748
7749
7750
7751
7752
7753
7754
7755
7756
7757
7758
7759
7760
7761
7762
7763
7764
7765
7766
7767
7768
7769
7770
7771
7772
7773
7774
7775
7776
7777
7778
7779
7780
7781
7782
7783
7784
7785
7786
7787
7788
7789
7790
7791
7792
7793
7794
7795
7796
7797
7798
7799
7800
7801
7802
7803
7804
7805
7806
7807
7808
7809
7810
7811
7812
7813
7814
7815
7816
7817
7818
7819
7820
7821
7822
7823
7824
7825
7826
7827
7828
7829
7830
7831
7832
7833
7834
7835
7836
7837
7838
7839
7840
7841
7842
7843
7844
7845
7846
7847
7848
7849
7850
7851
7852
7853
7854
7855
7856
7857
7858
7859
7860
7861
7862
7863
7864
7865
7866
7867
7868
7869
7870
7871
7872
7873
7874
7875
7876
7877
7878
7879
7880
7881
7882
7883
7884
7885
7886
7887
7888
7889
7890
7891
7892
7893
7894
7895
7896
7897
7898
7899
7900
7901
7902
7903
7904
7905
7906
7907
7908
7909
7910
7911
7912
7913
7914
7915
7916
7917
7918
7919
7920
7921
7922
7923
7924
7925
7926
7927
7928
7929
7930
7931
7932
7933
7934
7935
7936
7937
7938
7939
7940
7941
7942
7943
7944
7945
7946
7947
7948
7949
7950
7951
7952
7953
7954
7955
7956
7957
7958
7959
7960
7961
7962
7963
7964
7965
7966
7967
7968
7969
7970
7971
7972
7973
7974
7975
7976
7977
7978
7979
7980
7981
7982
7983
7984
7985
7986
7987
7988
7989
7990
7991
7992
7993
7994
7995
7996
7997
7998
7999
8000
8001
8002
8003
8004
8005
8006
8007
8008
8009
8010
8011
8012
8013
8014
8015
8016
8017
8018
8019
8020
8021
8022
8023
8024
8025
8026
8027
8028
8029
8030
8031
8032
8033
8034
8035
8036
8037
8038
8039
8040
8041
8042
8043
8044
8045
8046
8047
8048
8049
8050
8051
8052
8053
8054
8055
8056
8057
8058
8059
8060
8061
8062
8063
8064
8065
8066
8067
8068
8069
8070
8071
8072
8073
8074
8075
8076
8077
8078
8079
8080
8081
8082
8083
8084
8085
8086
8087
8088
8089
8090
8091
8092
8093
8094
8095
8096
8097
8098
8099
8100
8101
8102
8103
8104
8105
8106
8107
8108
8109
8110
8111
8112
8113
8114
8115
8116
8117
8118
8119
8120
8121
8122
8123
8124
8125
8126
8127
8128
8129
8130
8131
8132
8133
8134
8135
8136
8137
8138
8139
8140
8141
8142
8143
8144
8145
8146
8147
8148
8149
8150
8151
8152
8153
8154
8155
8156
8157
8158
8159
8160
8161
8162
8163
8164
8165
8166
8167
8168
8169
8170
8171
8172
8173
8174
8175
8176
8177
8178
8179
8180
8181
8182
8183
8184
8185
8186
8187
8188
8189
8190
8191
8192
8193
8194
8195
8196
8197
8198
8199
8200
8201
8202
8203
8204
8205
8206
8207
8208
8209
8210
8211
8212
8213
8214
8215
8216
8217
8218
8219
8220
8221
8222
8223
8224
8225
8226
8227
8228
8229
8230
8231
8232
8233
8234
8235
8236
8237
8238
8239
8240
8241
8242
8243
8244
8245
8246
8247
8248
8249
8250
8251
8252
8253
8254
8255
8256
8257
8258
8259
8260
8261
8262
8263
8264
8265
8266
8267
8268
8269
8270
8271
8272
8273
8274
8275
8276
8277
8278
8279
8280
8281
8282
8283
8284
8285
8286
8287
8288
8289
8290
8291
8292
8293
8294
8295
8296
8297
8298
8299
8300
8301
8302
8303
8304
8305
8306
8307
8308
8309
8310
8311
8312
8313
8314
8315
8316
8317
8318
8319
8320
8321
8322
8323
8324
8325
8326
8327
8328
8329
8330
8331
8332
8333
8334
8335
8336
8337
8338
8339
8340
8341
8342
8343
8344
8345
8346
8347
8348
8349
8350
8351
8352
8353
8354
8355
8356
8357
8358
8359
8360
8361
8362
8363
8364
8365
8366
8367
8368
8369
8370
8371
8372
8373
8374
8375
8376
8377
8378
8379
8380
8381
8382
8383
8384
8385
8386
8387
8388
8389
8390
8391
8392
8393
8394
8395
8396
8397
8398
8399
8400
8401
8402
8403
8404
8405
8406
8407
8408
8409
8410
8411
8412
8413
8414
8415
8416
8417
8418
8419
8420
8421
8422
8423
8424
8425
8426
8427
8428
8429
8430
8431
8432
8433
8434
8435
8436
8437
8438
8439
8440
8441
8442
8443
8444
8445
8446
8447
8448
8449
8450
8451
8452
8453
8454
8455
8456
8457
8458
8459
8460
8461
8462
8463
8464
8465
8466
8467
8468
8469
8470
8471
8472
8473
8474
8475
8476
8477
8478
8479
8480
8481
8482
8483
8484
8485
8486
8487
8488
8489
8490
8491
8492
8493
8494
8495
8496
8497
8498
8499
8500
8501
8502
8503
8504
8505
8506
8507
8508
8509
8510
8511
8512
8513
8514
8515
8516
8517
8518
8519
8520
8521
8522
8523
8524
8525
8526
8527
8528
8529
8530
8531
8532
8533
8534
8535
8536
8537
8538
8539
8540
8541
8542
8543
8544
8545
8546
8547
8548
8549
8550
8551
8552
8553
8554
8555
8556
8557
8558
8559
8560
8561
8562
8563
8564
8565
8566
8567
8568
8569
8570
8571
8572
8573
8574
8575
8576
8577
8578
8579
8580
8581
8582
8583
8584
8585
8586
systemd System and Service Manager

CHANGES WITH 239 in spe:

        * NETWORK INTERFACE DEVICE NAMING CHANGES: elogind-udevd's "net_id"
          builtin will name network interfaces differently than in previous
          versions for virtual network interfaces created with SR-IOV and NPAR
          and for devices where the PCI network controller device does not have
          a slot number associated.

          SR-IOV virtual devices are now named based on the name of the parent
          interface, with a suffix of "v<N>", where <N> is the virtual device
          number. Previously those virtual devices were named as if completely
          independent.

          The ninth and later NPAR virtual devices will be named following the
          scheme used for the first eight NPAR partitions. Previously those
          devices were not renamed and the kernel default (eth<n>) was used.

          "net_id" will also generate names for PCI devices where the PCI
          network controller device does not have an associated slot number
          itself, but one of its parents does. Previously those devices were
          not renamed and the kernel default (eth<n>) was used.

        * AF_INET and AF_INET6 are dropped from RestrictAddressFamilies= in
          elogind.service. Since v235, IPAddressDeny=any has been set to
          the unit. So, it is expected that the default behavior of
          elogind is not changed. However, if distribution packagers or
          administrators disabled or modified IPAddressDeny= setting by a
          drop-in config file, then it may be necessary to update the file to
          re-enable AF_INET and AF_INET6 to support network user name services,
          e.g. NIS.

        * When the RestrictNamespaces= unit property is specified multiple
          times, then the specified types are merged now. Previously, only the
          last assignment was used. So, if distribution packagers or
          administrators modified the setting by a drop-in config file, then it
          may be necessary to update the file.

        * When OnFailure= is used in combination with Restart= on a service
          unit, then the specified units will no longer be triggered on
          failures that result in restarting. Previously, the specified units
          would be activated each time the unit failed, even when the unit was
          going to be restarted automatically. This behaviour contradicted the
          documentation. With this release the code is adjusted to match the
          documentation.

        * elogind-tmpfiles will now print a notice whenever it encounters
          tmpfiles.d/ lines referencing the /var/run/ directory. It will
          recommend reworking them to use the /run/ directory instead (for
          which /var/run/ is simply a symlinked compatibility alias). This way
          elogind-tmpfiles can properly detect line conflicts and merge lines
          referencing the same file by two paths, without having to access
          them.

        * systemctl disable/unmask/preset/preset-all cannot be used with
          --runtime. Previously this was allowed, but resulted in unintuitive
          behaviour that wasn't useful. systemctl disable/unmask will now undo
          both runtime and persistent enablement/masking, i.e. it will remove
          any relevant symlinks both in /run and /etc.

        * Note that all long-running system services shipped with elogind will
          now default to a system call whitelist (rather than a blacklist, as
          before). In particular, elogind-udevd will now enforce one too. For
          most cases this should be safe, however downstream distributions
          which disabled sandboxing of elogind-udevd (specifically the
          MountFlags= setting), might want to disable this security feature
          too, as the default whitelisting will prohibit all mount, swap,
          reboot and clock changing operations from udev rules.

        * sd-boot acquired new loader configuration settings to optionally turn
          off Windows and MacOS boot partition discovery as well as
          reboot-into-firmware menu items. It is also able to pick a better
          screen resolution for HiDPI systems, and now provides loader
          configuration settings to change the resolution explicitly.

        * The elogind-resolve tool has been renamed to resolvectl (it also
        * elogind-resolved now supports DNS-over-TLS. It's still
          turned off by default, use DNSOverTLS=opportunistic to turn it on in
          resolved.conf. We intend to make this the default as soon as couple
          of additional techniques for optimizing the initial latency caused by
          establishing a TLS/TCP connection are implemented.

        * elogind-resolved.service and elogind-networkd.service now set
          DynamicUser=yes. The users elogind-resolve and elogind-network are
          not created by elogind-sysusers.

          remains available under the old name, for compatibility), and its
          interface is now verb-based, similar in style to the other <xyz>ctl
          tools, such as systemctl or loginctl.

        * The resolvectl/elogind-resolve tool also provides 'resolvconf'
          compatibility. It may be symlinked under the 'resolvconf' name, in
          which case it will take arguments and input compatible with the
          Debian and FreeBSD resolvconf tool.

        * Support for suspend-then-hibernate has been added, i.e. a sleep mode
          where the system initially suspends, and after a time-out resumes and
          hibernates again.

        * networkd's ClientIdentifier= now accepts a new option "duid-only". If
          set the client will only send a DUID as client identifier.

        * The nss-elogind glibc NSS module will now enumerate dynamic users and
          groups in effect. Previously, it could resolve UIDs/GIDs to user
          names/groups and vice versa, but did not support enumeration.

        * journald's Compress= configuration setting now optionally accepts a
          byte threshold value. All journal objects larger than this threshold
          will be compressed, smaller ones will not. Previously this threshold
          was not configurable and set to 512.

        * A new system.conf setting NoNewPrivileges= is now available which may
          be used to turn off acquisition of new privileges system-wide
          (i.e. set Linux' PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS for PID 1 itself, and thus also
          for all its children). Note that turning this option on means setuid
          binaries and file system capabilities lose their special powers.
          While turning on this option is a big step towards a more secure
          system, doing so is likely to break numerous pre-existing UNIX tools,
          in particular su and sudo.

        * A new service elogind-time-sync-wait.service has been added. If
          enabled it will delay the time-sync.target unit at boot until time
          synchronization has been received from the network. This
          functionality is useful on systems lacking a local RTC or where it is
          acceptable that the boot process shall be delayed by external network
          services.

        * When hibernating, elogind will now inform the kernel of the image
          write offset, on kernels new enough to support this. This means swap
          files should work for hibernation now.

        * When loading unit files, elogind will now look for drop-in unit files
          extensions in additional places. Previously, for a unit file name
          "foo-bar-baz.service" it would look for dropin files in
          "foo-bar-baz.service.d/*.conf". Now, it will also look in
          "foo-bar-.service.d/*.conf" and "foo-.service.d/", i.e. at the
          service name truncated after all inner dashes. This scheme allows
          writing drop-ins easily that apply to a whole set of unit files at
          once. It's particularly useful for mount and slice units (as their
          naming is prefix based), but is also useful for service and other
          units, for packages that install multiple unit files at once,
          following a strict naming regime of beginning the unit file name with
          the package's name. Two new specifiers are now supported in unit
          files to match this: %j and %J are replaced by the part of the unit
          name following the last dash.

        * Unit files and other configuration files that support specifier
          expansion now understand another three new specifiers: %T and %V will
          resolve to /tmp and /var/tmp respectively, or whatever temporary
          directory has been set for the calling user. %E will expand to either
          /etc (for system units) or $XDG_CONFIG_HOME (for user units).

        * The ExecStart= lines of unit files are no longer required to
          reference absolute paths. If non-absolute paths are specified the
          specified binary name is searched within the service manager's
          built-in $PATH, which may be queried with 'elogind-path
          search-binaries-default'. It's generally recommended to continue to
          use absolute paths for all binaries specified in unit files.

        * Units gained a new load state "bad-setting", which is used when a
          unit file was loaded, but contained fatal errors which prevent it
          from being started (for example, a service unit has been defined
          lacking both ExecStart= and ExecStop= lines).

        * coredumpctl's "gdb" verb has been renamed to "debug", in order to
          support alternative debuggers, for example lldb. The old name
          continues to be available however, for compatibility reasons. Use the
          new --debugger= switch or the $SYSTEMD_DEBUGGER environment variable
          to pick an alternative debugger instead of the default gdb.

        * systemctl and the other tools will now output escape sequences that
          generate proper clickable hyperlinks in various terminal emulators
          where useful (for example, in the "systemctl status" output you can
          now click on the unit file name to quickly open it in the
          editor/viewer of your choice). Note that not all terminal emulators
          support this functionality yet, but many do. Unfortunately, the
          "less" pager doesn't support this yet, hence this functionality is
          currently automatically turned off when a pager is started (which
          happens quite often due to auto-paging). We hope to remove this
          limitation as soon as "less" learns these escape sequences. This new
          behaviour may also be turned off explicitly with the $SYSTEMD_URLIFY
          environment variable. For details on these escape sequences see:
          https://gist.github.com/egmontkob/eb114294efbcd5adb1944c9f3cb5feda

        * networkd's .network files now support a new IPv6MTUBytes= option for
          setting the MTU used by IPv6 explicitly as well as a new MTUBytes=
          option in the [Route] section to configure the MTU to use for
          specific routes. It also gained support for configuration of the DHCP
          "UserClass" option through the new UserClass= setting. It gained
          three new options in the new [CAN] section for configuring CAN
          networks. The MULTICAST and ALLMULTI interface flags may now be
          controlled explicitly with the new Multicast= and AllMulticast=
          settings.

        * networkd will now automatically make use of the kernel's route
          expiration feature, if it is available.

        * udevd's .link files now support setting the number of receive and
          transmit channels, using the RxChannels=, TxChannels=,
          OtherChannels=, CombinedChannels= settings.

        * Support for UDPSegmentationOffload= has been removed, given its
          limited support in hardware, and waning software support.

        * networkd's .netdev files now support creating "netdevsim" interfaces.

        * PID 1 learnt a new bus call GetUnitByControlGroup() which may be used
          to query the unit belonging to a specific kernel control group.

        * elogind-analyze gained a new verb "cat-config", which may be used to
          dump the contents of any configuration file, with all its matching
          drop-in files added in, and honouring the usual search and masking
          logic applied to elogind configuration files. For example use
          "elogind-analyze cat-config elogind/system.conf" to get the complete
          system configuration file of elogind how it would be loaded by PID 1
          itself. Similar to this, various tools such as elogind-tmpfiles or
          elogind-sysusers, gained a new option "--cat-config", which does the
          corresponding operation for their own configuration settings. For
          example, "elogind-tmpfiles --cat-config" will now output the full
          list of tmpfiles.d/ lines in place.

        * timedatectl gained two new verbs "timesync-status" (to show the
          current NTP synchronization state of elogind-timesyncd) and
          "show-timesync" (to show bus properties of elogind-timesyncd).

        * elogind-timesyncd gained a bus interface on which it exposes details
          about its state.

        * elogind-nspawn gained a new --rlimit= switch for setting initial
        * A new environment variable $SYSTEMD_TIMEDATED_NTP_SERVICES is now
          understood by elogind-timedated. It takes a colon-separated list of
          unit names of NTP client services. The list is used by
          "timedatectl set-ntp".

          resource limits for the container payload. There's a new switch
          --hostname= to explicitly override the container's hostname. A new
          --no-new-privileges= switch may be used to control the
          PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS flag for the container payload. A new
          --oom-score-adjust= switch controls the OOM scoring adjustment value
          for the payload. The new --cpu-affinity= switch controls the CPU
          affinity of the container payload. The new --resolv-conf= switch
          allows more detailed control of /etc/resolv.conf handling of the
          container. Similarly, the new --timezone= switch allows more detailed
          control of /etc/localtime handling of the container.

        * elogind-detect-virt gained a new --list switch, which will print a
          list of all currently known VM and container environments.

        * Support for "Portable Services" has been added, see
          doc/PORTABLE_SERVICES.md for details. Currently, the support is still
          experimental, but this is expected to change soon. Reflecting this
          experimental state, the "portablectl" binary is not installed into
          /usr/bin yet. The binary has to be called with the full path
          /usr/lib/elogind/portablectl instead.

        * journalctl's and systemctl's -o switch now knows a new log output
          mode "with-unit". The output it generates is very similar to the
          regular "short" mode, but displays the unit name instead of the
          syslog tag for each log line. Also, the date is shown with timezone
          information. This mode is probably more useful than the classic
          "short" output mode for most purposes, except where pixel-perfect
          compatibility with classic /var/log/messages formatting is required.

        * A new --dump-bus-properties switch has been added to the elogind
          binary, which may be used to dump all supported D-Bus properties.
          (Options which are still supported, but are deprecated, are *not*
          shown.)

        * sd-bus gained a set of new calls:
          sd_bus_slot_set_floating()/sd_bus_slot_get_floating() may be used to
          enable/disable the "floating" state of a bus slot object,
          i.e. whether the slot object pins the bus it is allocated for into
          memory or if the bus slot object gets disconnected when the bus goes
          away. sd_bus_open_with_description(),
          sd_bus_open_user_with_description(),
          sd_bus_open_system_with_description() may be used to allocate bus
          objects and set their description string already during allocation.

        * sd-event gained support for watching inotify events from the event
          loop, in an efficient way, sharing inotify handles between multiple
          users. For this a new function sd_event_add_inotify() has been added.

        * sd-event and sd-bus gained support for calling special user-supplied
          destructor functions for userdata pointers associated with
          sd_event_source, sd_bus_slot, and sd_bus_track objects. For this new
          functions sd_bus_slot_set_destroy_callback,
          sd_bus_slot_get_destroy_callback, sd_bus_track_set_destroy_callback,
          sd_bus_track_get_destroy_callback,
          sd_event_source_set_destroy_callback,
          sd_event_source_get_destroy_callback have been added.

        * The "net.ipv4.tcp_ecn" sysctl will now be turned on by default.

        * PID 1 will now automatically reschedule .timer units whenever the
          local timezone changes. (They previously got rescheduled
          automatically when the system clock changed.)

        * New documentation has been added to document cgroups delegation,
          portable services and the various code quality tools we have set up:

          https://github.com/systemd/systemd/blob/master/doc/CGROUP_DELEGATION.md
          https://github.com/systemd/systemd/blob/master/doc/PORTABLE_SERVICES.md
          https://github.com/systemd/systemd/blob/master/doc/CODE_QUALITY.md

        * The Boot Loader Specification has been added to the source tree.

          https://github.com/systemd/systemd/blob/master/doc/BOOT_LOADER_SPECIFICATION.md

          While moving it into our source tree we have updated it and further
          changes are now accepted through the usual github PR workflow.

        * pam_elogind will now look for PAM userdata fields elogind.memory_max,
          elogind.tasks_max, elogind.cpu_weight, elogind.io_weight set by
          earlier PAM modules. The data in these fields is used to initialize
          the session scope's resource properties. Thus external PAM modules
          may now configure per-session limits, for example sourced from
          external user databases.

        * socket units with Accept=yes will now maintain a "refused" counter in
          addition to the existing "accepted" counter, counting connections
          refused due to the enforced limits.

        * The "elogind-path search-binaries-default" command may now be use to
          query the default, built-in $PATH PID 1 will pass to the services it
          manages.

        * A new unit file setting PrivateMounts= has been added. It's a boolean
          option. If enabled the unit's processes are invoked in their own file
          system namespace. Note that this behaviour is also implied if any
          other file system namespacing options (such as PrivateTmp=,
          PrivateDevices=, ProtectSystem=, …) are used. This option is hence
          primarily useful for services that do not use any of the other file
          system namespacing options. One such service is elogind-udevd.service
          wher this is now used by default.

        * ConditionSecurity= gained a new value "uefi-secureboot" that is true
          when the system is booted in UEFI "secure mode".

        * A new unit "system-update-pre.target" is added, which defines an
          optional synchronization point for offline system updates, as
          implemented by the pre-existing "system-update.target" unit. It
          allows ordering services before the service that executes the actual
          update process in a generic way.

        Contributions from: Adam Duskett, Alan Jenkins, Alessandro Casale,
        Alexander Kurtz, Alex Gartrell, Anssi Hannula, Arnaud Rebillout, Brian
        J. Murrell, Bruno Vernay, Chris Lamb, Chris Lesiak, Christian Brauner,
        Christian Hesse, Christian Rebischke, Colin Guthrie, Daniel Dao, Daniel
        Lin, Danylo Korostil, Davide Cavalca, David Tardon, Dimitri John
        Ledkov, Dmitriy Geels, Douglas Christman, Elia Geretto, emelenas, Emil
        Velikov, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Feng Sun, Filipe
        Brandenburger, Franck Bui, futpib, Giuseppe Scrivano, Guillem Jover,
        guixxx, Hannes Reinecke, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Henrique Dante de
        Almeida, Hiram van Paassen, Ian Miell, Igor Gnatenko, Ivan Shapovalov,
        Iwan Timmer, James Cowgill, Jan Janssen, Jan Synacek, Jared Kazimir,
        Jérémy Rosen, João Paulo Rechi Vita, Joost Heitbrink, Jui-Chi Ricky
        Liang, Jürg Billeter, Kai-Heng Feng, Karol Augustin, Kay Sievers,
        Krzysztof Nowicki, Lauri Tirkkonen, Lennart Poettering, Leonard König,
        Long Li, Luca Boccassi, Lucas Werkmeister, Marcel Hoppe, Marc
        Kleine-Budde, Mario Limonciello, Martin Jansa, Martin Wilck, Mathieu
        Malaterre, Matteo F. Vescovi, Matthew McGinn, Matthias-Christian Ott,
        Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Prokop, Michal Koutný, Michal
        Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Mikhail Kasimov, Milan Broz, Milan Pässler,
        Mladen Pejaković, Muhammet Kara, Nicolas Boichat, Omer Katz, Paride
        Legovini, Paul Menzel, Paul Milliken, Pavel Hrdina, Peter A. Bigot,
        Peter D'Hoye, Peter Hutterer, Peter Jones, Philip Sequeira, Philip
        Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Radostin Stoyanov, Ricardo Salveti de Araujo,
        Ronny Chevalier, Rosen Penev, Rubén Suárez Alvarez, Ryan Gonzalez,
        Salvo Tomaselli, Sebastian Reichel, Sergey Ptashnick, Sergio Lindo
        Mansilla, Stefan Schweter, Stephen Hemminger, Stuart Hayes, Susant
        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tobias Jungel,
        Tomasz Torcz, Vito Caputo, Will Dietz, Will Thompson, Wim van Mourik,
        Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2018-06-XX

CHANGES WITH 238:

        * The MemoryAccounting= unit property now defaults to on. After
          discussions with the upstream control group maintainers we learnt
          that the negative impact of cgroup memory accounting on current
          kernels is finally relatively minimal, so that it should be safe to
          enable this by default without affecting system performance. Besides
          memory accounting only task accounting is turned on by default, all
          other forms of resource accounting (CPU, IO, IP) remain off for now,
          because it's not clear yet that their impact is small enough to move
          from opt-in to opt-out. We recommend downstreams to leave memory
          accounting on by default if kernel 4.14 or higher is primarily
          used. On very resource constrained systems or when support for old
          kernels is a necessity, -Dmemory-accounting-default=false can be used
          to revert this change.

        * rpm scriptlets to update the udev hwdb and rules (%udev_hwdb_update,
          %udev_rules_update) and the journal catalog (%journal_catalog_update)
          from the upgrade scriptlets of individual packages now do nothing.
          Transfiletriggers have been added which will perform those updates
          once at the end of the transaction.

          Similar transfiletriggers have been added to execute any sysctl.d
          and binfmt.d rules. Thus, it should be unnecessary to provide any
          scriptlets to execute this configuration from package installation
          scripts.

        * elogind-sysusers gained a mode where the configuration to execute is
          specified on the command line, but this configuration is not executed
          directly, but instead it is merged with the configuration on disk,
          and the result is executed. This is useful for package installation
          scripts which want to create the user before installing any files on
          disk (in case some of those files are owned by that user), while
          still allowing local admin overrides.

          This functionality is exposed to rpm scriptlets through a new
          %sysusers_create_package macro. Old %sysusers_create and
          %sysusers_create_inline macros are deprecated.

          A transfiletrigger for sysusers.d configuration is now installed,
          which means that it should be unnecessary to call elogind-sysusers from
          package installation scripts, unless the package installs any files
          owned by those newly-created users, in which case
          %sysusers_create_package should be used.

        * Analogous change has been done for elogind-tmpfiles: it gained a mode
          where the command-line configuration is merged with the configuration
          on disk. This is exposed as the new %tmpfiles_create_package macro,
          and %tmpfiles_create is deprecated. A transfiletrigger is installed
          for tmpfiles.d, hence it should be unnecessary to call elogind-tmpfiles
          from package installation scripts.

        * sysusers.d configuration for a user may now also specify the group
          number, in addition to the user number ("u username 123:456"), or
          without the user number ("u username -:456").

        * Configution items for elogind-sysusers can now be specified as
          positional arguments when the new --inline switch is used.

        * The login shell of users created through sysusers.d may now be
          specified (previously, it was always /bin/sh for root and
          /sbin/nologin for other users).

        * elogind-analyze gained a new --global switch to look at global user
          configuration. It also gained a unit-paths verb to list the unit load
          paths that are compiled into elogind (which can be used with
          --elogind, --user, or --global).

        * udevadm trigger gained a new --settle/-w option to wait for any
          triggered events to finish (but just those, and not any other events
          which are triggered meanwhile).

        * The action that elogind takes when the lid is closed and the
          machine is connected to external power can now be configured using
          HandleLidSwitchExternalPower= in logind.conf. Previously, this action
          was determined by HandleLidSwitch=, and, for backwards compatibility,
          is still is, if HandleLidSwitchExternalPower= is not explicitly set.

        * journalctl will periodically call sd_journal_process() to make it
          resilient against inotify queue overruns when journal files are
          rotated very quickly.

        * Two new functions in libelogind — sd_bus_get_n_queued_read and
          sd_bus_get_n_queued_write — may be used to check the number of
          pending bus messages.

        * elogind gained a new
          org.freedesktop.elogind1.Manager.AttachProcessesToUnit dbus call
          which can be used to migrate foreign processes to scope and service
          units. The primary user for this new API is elogind itself: the
          elogind --user instance uses this call of the elogind --system
          instance to migrate processes if it itself gets the request to
          migrate processes and the kernel refuses this due to access
          restrictions.  Thanks to this "elogind-run --scope --user …" works
          again in pure cgroups v2 environments when invoked from the user
          session scope.

        * A new TemporaryFileSystem= setting can be used to mask out part of
          the real file system tree with tmpfs mounts. This may be combined
          with BindPaths= and BindReadOnlyPaths= to hide files or directories
          not relevant to the unit, while still allowing some paths lower in
          the tree to be accessed.

          ProtectHome=tmpfs may now be used to hide user home and runtime
          directories from units, in a way that is mostly equivalent to
          "TemporaryFileSystem=/home /run/user /root".

        * Non-service units are now started with KeyringMode=shared by default.
          This means that mount and swapon and other mount tools have access
          to keys in the main keyring.

        * /sys/fs/bpf is now mounted automatically.

        * QNX virtualization is now detected by elogind-detect-virt and may
          be used in ConditionVirtualization=.

        * IPAccounting= may now be enabled also for slice units.

        * A new -Dsplit-bin= build configuration switch may be used to specify
          whether bin and sbin directories are merged, or if they should be
          included separately in $PATH and various listings of executable
          directories. The build configuration scripts will try to autodetect
          the proper values of -Dsplit-usr= and -Dsplit-bin= based on build
          system, but distributions are encouraged to configure this
          explicitly.

        * A new -Dok-color= build configuration switch may be used to change
          the colour of "OK" status messages.

        * UPGRADE ISSUE: serialization of units using JoinsNamespaceOf= with
          PrivateNetwork=yes was buggy in previous versions of elogind. This
          means that after the upgrade and daemon-reexec, any such units must
          be restarted.

        * INCOMPATIBILITY: as announced in the NEWS for 237, elogind-tmpfiles
          will not exclude read-only files owned by root from cleanup.

        Contributions from: Alan Jenkins, Alexander F Rødseth, Alexis Jeandet,
        Andika Triwidada, Andrei Gherzan, Ansgar Burchardt, antizealot1337,
        Batuhan Osman Taşkaya, Beniamino Galvani, Bill Yodlowsky, Caio Marcelo
        de Oliveira Filho, CuBiC, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mouritzen, Daniel
        Rusek, Davide Cavalca, Dimitri John Ledkov, Douglas Christman, Evgeny
        Vereshchagin, Faalagorn, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, futpib,
        Giacomo Longo, Gunnar Hjalmarsson, Hans de Goede, Hermann Gausterer,
        Iago López Galeiras, Jakub Filak, Jan Synacek, Jason A. Donenfeld,
        Javier Martinez Canillas, Jérémy Rosen, Lennart Poettering, Lucas
        Werkmeister, Mao Huang, Marco Gulino, Michael Biebl, Michael Vogt,
        MilhouseVH, Neal Gompa (ニール・ゴンパ), Oleander Reis, Olof Mogren,
        Patrick Uiterwijk, Peter Hutterer, Peter Portante, Piotr Drąg, Robert
        Antoni Buj Gelonch, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Shuang Liu, Simon
        Fowler, SjonHortensius, snorreflorre, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
        Plantefève, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller, Vito Caputo, Yu Watanabe,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Марко М. Костић (Marko M. Kostić)

        — Warsaw, 2018-03-05

CHANGES WITH 237:

        * Some keyboards come with a zoom see-saw or rocker which until now got
          mapped to the Linux "zoomin/out" keys in hwdb. However, these
          keycodes are not recognized by any major desktop. They now produce
          Up/Down key events so that they can be used for scrolling.

        * INCOMPATIBILITY: elogind-tmpfiles' "f" lines changed behaviour
          slightly: previously, if an argument was specified for lines of this
          type (i.e. the right-most column was set) this string was appended to
          existing files each time elogind-tmpfiles was run. This behaviour was
          different from what the documentation said, and not particularly
          useful, as repeated elogind-tmpfiles invocations would not be
          idempotent and grow such files without bounds. With this release
          behaviour has been altered slightly, to match what the documentation
          says: lines of this type only have an effect if the indicated files
          don't exist yet, and only then the argument string is written to the
          file.

        * FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY: In elogind v238 we intend to slightly change
          elogind-tmpfiles behaviour: previously, read-only files owned by root
          were always excluded from the file "aging" algorithm (i.e. the
          automatic clean-up of directories like /tmp based on
          atime/mtime/ctime). We intend to drop this restriction, and age files
          by default even when owned by root and read-only. This behaviour was
          inherited from older tools, but there have been requests to remove
          it, and it's not obvious why this restriction was made in the first
          place. Please speak up now, if you are aware of software that reqires
          this behaviour, otherwise we'll remove the restriction in v238.

        * A new environment variable $SYSTEMD_OFFLINE is now understood by
          systemctl. It takes a boolean argument. If on, systemctl assumes it
          operates on an "offline" OS tree, and will not attempt to talk to the
          service manager. Previously, this mode was implicitly enabled if a
          chroot() environment was detected, and this new environment variable
          now provides explicit control.

        * .path and .socket units may now be created transiently, too.
          Previously only service, mount, automount and timer units were
          supported as transient units. The elogind-run tool has been updated
          to expose this new functionality, you may hence use it now to bind
          arbitrary commands to path or socket activation on-the-fly from the
          command line. Moreover, almost all properties are now exposed for the
          unit types that already supported transient operation.

        * The elogind-mount command gained support for a new --owner= parameter
          which takes a user name, which is then resolved and included in uid=
          and gid= mount options string of the file system to mount.

        * A new unit condition ConditionControlGroupController= has been added
          that checks whether a specific cgroup controller is available.

        * Unit files, udev's .link files, and elogind-networkd's .netdev and
          .network files all gained support for a new condition
          ConditionKernelVersion= for checking against specific kernel
          versions.

        * In elogind-networkd, the [IPVLAN] section in .netdev files gained
          support for configuring device flags in the Flags= setting. In the
          same files, the [Tunnel] section gained support for configuring
          AllowLocalRemote=.  The [Route] section in .network files gained
          support for configuring InitialCongestionWindow=,
          InitialAdvertisedReceiveWindow= and QuickAck=. The [DHCP] section now
          understands RapidCommit=.

        * elogind-networkd's DHCPv6 support gained support for Prefix
          Delegation.

        * sd-bus gained support for a new "watch-bind" feature. When this
          feature is enabled, an sd_bus connection may be set up to connect to
          an AF_UNIX socket in the file system as soon as it is created. This
          functionality is useful for writing early-boot services that
          automatically connect to the system bus as soon as it is started,
          without ugly time-based polling. elogind-networkd and
          elogind-resolved have been updated to make use of this
          functionality. busctl exposes this functionality in a new
          --watch-bind= command line switch.

        * sd-bus will now optionally synthesize a local "Connected" signal as
          soon as a D-Bus connection is set up fully. This message mirrors the
          already existing "Disconnected" signal which is synthesized when the
          connection is terminated. This signal is generally useful but
          particularly handy in combination with the "watch-bind" feature
          described above. Synthesizing of this message has to be requested
          explicitly through the new API call sd_bus_set_connected_signal(). In
          addition a new call sd_bus_is_ready() has been added that checks
          whether a connection is fully set up (i.e. between the "Connected" and
          "Disconnected" signals).

        * sd-bus gained two new calls sd_bus_request_name_async() and
          sd_bus_release_name_async() for asynchronously registering bus
          names. Similar, there is now sd_bus_add_match_async() for installing
          a signal match asynchronously. All of elogind's own services have
          been updated to make use of these calls. Doing these operations
          asynchronously has two benefits: it reduces the risk of deadlocks in
          case of cyclic dependencies between bus services, and it speeds up
          service initialization since synchronization points for bus
          round-trips are removed.

        * sd-bus gained two new calls sd_bus_match_signal() and
          sd_bus_match_signal_async(), which are similar to sd_bus_add_match()
          and sd_bus_add_match_async() but instead of taking a D-Bus match
          string take match fields as normal function parameters.

        * sd-bus gained two new calls sd_bus_set_sender() and
          sd_bus_message_set_sender() for setting the sender name of outgoing
          messages (either for all outgoing messages or for just one specific
          one). These calls are only useful in direct connections as on
          brokered connections the broker fills in the sender anyway,
          overwriting whatever the client filled in.

        * sd-event gained a new pseudo-handle that may be specified on all API
          calls where an "sd_event*" object is expected: SD_EVENT_DEFAULT. When
          used this refers to the default event loop object of the calling
          thread. Note however that this does not implicitly allocate one —
          which has to be done prior by using sd_event_default(). Similarly
          sd-bus gained three new pseudo-handles SD_BUS_DEFAULT,
          SD_BUS_DEFAULT_USER, SD_BUS_DEFAULT_SYSTEM that may be used to refer
          to the default bus of the specified type of the calling thread. Here
          too this does not implicitly allocate bus connection objects, this
          has to be done prior with sd_bus_default() and friends.

        * sd-event gained a new call pair
          sd_event_source_{get|set}_io_fd_own(). This may be used to request
          automatic closure of the file descriptor an IO event source watches
          when the event source is destroyed.

        * elogind-networkd gained support for natively configuring WireGuard
          connections.

        * In previous versions elogind synthesized user records both for the
          "nobody" (UID 65534) and "root" (UID 0) users in nss-elogind and
          internally. In order to simplify distribution-wide renames of the
          "nobody" user (like it is planned in Fedora: nfsnobody → nobody), a
          new transitional flag file has been added: if
          /etc/elogind/dont-synthesize-nobody exists synthesizing of the 65534
          user and group record within the elogind codebase is disabled.

        * elogind-notify gained a new --uid= option for selecting the source
          user/UID to use for notification messages sent to the service
          manager.

        * journalctl gained a new --grep= option to list only entries in which
          the message matches a certain pattern. By default matching is case
          insensitive if the pattern is lowercase, and case sensitive
          otherwise. Option --case-sensitive=yes|no can be used to override
          this an specify case sensitivity or case insensitivity.

        * There's now a "elogind-analyze service-watchdogs" command for printing
          the current state of the service runtime watchdog, and optionally
          enabling or disabling the per-service watchdogs system-wide if given a
          boolean argument (i.e. the concept you configure in WatchdogSec=), for
          debugging purposes. There's also a kernel command line option
          elogind.service_watchdogs= for controlling the same.

        * Two new "log-level" and "log-target" options for elogind-analyze were
          added that merge the now deprecated get-log-level, set-log-level and
          get-log-target, set-log-target pairs. The deprecated options are still
          understood for backwards compatibility. The two new options print the
          current value when no arguments are given, and set them when a
          level/target is given as an argument.

        * sysusers.d's "u" lines now optionally accept both a UID and a GID
          specification, separated by a ":" character, in order to create users
          where UID and GID do not match.

        Contributions from: Adam Duskett, Alan Jenkins, Alexander Kuleshov,
        Alexis Deruelle, Andrew Jeddeloh, Armin Widegreen, Batuhan Osman
        Taşkaya, Björn Esser, bleep_blop, Bruce A. Johnson, Chris Down, Clinton
        Roy, Colin Walters, Daniel Rusek, Dimitri John Ledkov, Dmitry Rozhkov,
        Evgeny Vereshchagin, Ewout van Mansom, Felipe Sateler, Franck Bui,
        Frantisek Sumsal, George Gaydarov, Gianluca Boiano, Hans-Christian
        Noren Egtvedt, Hans de Goede, Henrik Grindal Bakken, Jan Alexander
        Steffens, Jan Klötzke, Jason A. Donenfeld, jdkbx, Jérémy Rosen,
        Jerónimo Borque, John Lin, John Paul Herold, Jonathan Rudenberg, Jörg
        Thalheim, Ken (Bitsko) MacLeod, Larry Bernstone, Lennart Poettering,
        Lucas Werkmeister, Maciej S. Szmigiero, Marek Čermák, Martin Pitt,
        Mathieu Malaterre, Matthew Thode, Matthias-Christian Ott, Max Harmathy,
        Michael Biebl, Michael Vogt, Michal Koutný, Michal Sekletar, Michał
        Szczepański, Mike Gilbert, Nathaniel McCallum, Nicolas Chauvet, Olaf
        Hering, Olivier Schwander, Patrik Flykt, Paul Cercueil, Peter Hutterer,
        Piotr Drąg, Raphael Vogelgsang, Reverend Homer, Robert Kolchmeyer,
        Samuel Dionne-Riel, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Susant Sahani,
        Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Thomas Huth, Tomasz
        Bachorski, Vladislav Vishnyakov, Wieland Hoffmann, Yu Watanabe, Zachary
        Winnerman, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Дамјан Георгиевски, Дилян
        Палаузов

        — Brno, 2018-01-28

CHANGES WITH 236:

        * The modprobe.d/ drop-in for the bonding.ko kernel module introduced
          in v235 has been extended to also set the dummy.ko module option
          numdummies=0, preventing the kernel from automatically creating
          dummy0. All dummy interfaces must now be explicitly created.

        * Unknown '%' specifiers in configuration files are now rejected. This
          applies to units and tmpfiles.d configuration. Any percent characters
          that are followed by a letter or digit that are not supposed to be
          interpreted as the beginning of a specifier should be escaped by
          doubling ("%%").  (So "size=5%" is still accepted, as well as
          "size=5%,foo=bar", but not "LABEL=x%y%z" since %y and %z are not
          valid specifiers today.)

        * systemd-resolved now maintains a new dynamic
          /run/systemd/resolve/stub-resolv.conf compatibility file. It is
          recommended to make /etc/resolv.conf a symlink to it. This file
          points at the systemd-resolved stub DNS 127.0.0.53 resolver and
          includes dynamically acquired search domains, achieving more correct
          DNS resolution by software that bypasses local DNS APIs such as NSS.

        * The "uaccess" udev tag has been dropped from /dev/kvm and
          /dev/dri/renderD*.  These devices now have the 0666 permissions by
          default (but this may be changed at build-time). /dev/dri/renderD*
          will now be owned by the "render" group along with /dev/kfd.

        * "DynamicUser=yes" has been enabled for systemd-timesyncd.service,
          systemd-journal-gatewayd.service and
          systemd-journal-upload.service. This means "nss-systemd" must be
          enabled in /etc/nsswitch.conf to ensure the UIDs assigned to these
          services are resolved properly.

        * In /etc/fstab two new mount options are now understood:
          x-systemd.makefs and x-systemd.growfs. The former has the effect that
          the configured file system is formatted before it is mounted, the
          latter that the file system is resized to the full block device size
          after it is mounted (i.e. if the file system is smaller than the
          partition it resides on, it's grown). This is similar to the fsck
          logic in /etc/fstab, and pulls in systemd-makefs@.service and
          systemd-growfs@.service as necessary, similar to
          systemd-fsck@.service. Resizing is currently only supported on ext4
          and btrfs.

        * In systemd-networkd, the IPv6 RA logic now optionally may announce
          DNS server and domain information.

        * Support for the LUKS2 on-disk format for encrypted partitions has
          been added. This requires libcryptsetup2 during compilation and
          runtime.

        * The systemd --user instance will now signal "readiness" when its
          basic.target unit has been reached, instead of when the run queue ran
          empty for the first time.

        * Tmpfiles.d with user configuration are now also supported.
          systemd-tmpfiles gained a new --user switch, and snippets placed in
          ~/.config/user-tmpfiles.d/ and corresponding directories will be
          executed by systemd-tmpfiles --user running in the new
          systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service and systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service
          running in the user session.

        * Unit files and tmpfiles.d snippets learnt three new % specifiers:
          %S resolves to the top-level state directory (/var/lib for the system
          instance, $XDG_CONFIG_HOME for the user instance), %C resolves to the
          top-level cache directory (/var/cache for the system instance,
          $XDG_CACHE_HOME for the user instance), %L resolves to the top-level
          logs directory (/var/log for the system instance,
          $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/log/ for the user instance). This matches the
          existing %t specifier, that resolves to the top-level runtime
          directory (/run for the system instance, and $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR for the
          user instance).

        * journalctl learnt a new parameter --output-fields= for limiting the
          set of journal fields to output in verbose and JSON output modes.

        * systemd-timesyncd's configuration file gained a new option
          RootDistanceMaxSec= for setting the maximum root distance of servers
          it'll use, as well as the new options PollIntervalMinSec= and
          PollIntervalMaxSec= to tweak the minimum and maximum poll interval.

        * bootctl gained a new command "list" for listing all available boot
          menu items on systems that follow the boot loader specification.

        * systemctl gained a new --dry-run switch that shows what would be done
          instead of doing it, and is currently supported by the shutdown and
          sleep verbs.

        * ConditionSecurity= can now detect the TOMOYO security module.

        * Unit file [Install] sections are now also respected in unit drop-in
          files. This is intended to be used by drop-ins under /usr/lib/.

        * systemd-firstboot may now also set the initial keyboard mapping.

        * Udev "changed" events for devices which are exposed as systemd
          .device units are now propagated to units specified in
          ReloadPropagatedFrom= as reload requests.

        * If a udev device has a SYSTEMD_WANTS= property containing a systemd
          unit template name (i.e. a name in the form of 'foobar@.service',
          without the instance component between the '@' and - the '.'), then
          the escaped sysfs path of the device is automatically used as the
          instance.

        * SystemCallFilter= in unit files has been extended so that an "errno"
          can be specified individually for each system call. Example:
          SystemCallFilter=~uname:EILSEQ.

        * The cgroup delegation logic has been substantially updated. Delegate=
          now optionally takes a list of controllers (instead of a boolean, as
          before), which lists the controllers to delegate at least.

        * The networkd DHCPv6 client now implements the FQDN option (RFC 4704).

        * A new LogLevelMax= setting configures the maximum log level any
          process of the service may log at (i.e. anything with a lesser
          priority than what is specified is automatically dropped). A new
          LogExtraFields= setting allows configuration of additional journal
          fields to attach to all log records generated by any of the unit's
          processes.

        * New StandardInputData= and StandardInputText= settings along with the
          new option StandardInput=data may be used to configure textual or
          binary data that shall be passed to the executed service process via
          standard input, encoded in-line in the unit file.

        * StandardInput=, StandardOutput= and StandardError= may now be used to
          connect stdin/stdout/stderr of executed processes directly with a
          file or AF_UNIX socket in the file system, using the new "file:" option.

        * A new unit file option CollectMode= has been added, that allows
          tweaking the garbage collection logic for units. It may be used to
          tell systemd to garbage collect units that have failed automatically
          (normally it only GCs units that exited successfully). systemd-run
          and systemd-mount expose this new functionality with a new -G option.

        * "machinectl bind" may now be used to bind mount non-directories
          (i.e. regularfiles, devices, fifos, sockets).

        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "calendar" for validating and
          testing calendar time specifications to use for OnCalendar= in timer
          units. Besides validating the expression it will calculate the next
          time the specified expression would elapse.

        * In addition to the pre-existing FailureAction= unit file setting
          there's now SuccessAction=, for configuring a shutdown action to
          execute when a unit completes successfully. This is useful in
          particular inside containers that shall terminate after some workload
          has been completed. Also, both options are now supported for all unit
          types, not just services.

        * networkds's IP rule support gained two new options
          IncomingInterface= and OutgoingInterface= for configuring the incoming
          and outgoing interfaces of configured rules. systemd-networkd also
          gained support for "vxcan" network devices.

        * networkd gained a new setting RequiredForOnline=, taking a
          boolean. If set, systemd-wait-online will take it into consideration
          when determining that the system is up, otherwise it will ignore the
          interface for this purpose.

        * The sd_notify() protocol gained support for a new operation: with
          FDSTOREREMOVE=1 file descriptors may be removed from the per-service
          store again, ahead of POLLHUP or POLLERR when they are removed
          anyway.

        * A new document doc/UIDS-GIDS.md has been added to the source tree,
          that documents the UID/GID range and assignment assumptions and
          requirements of systemd.

        * The watchdog device PID 1 will ping may now be configured through the
          WatchdogDevice= configuration file setting, or by setting the
          systemd.watchdog_service= kernel commandline option.

        * systemd-resolved's gained support for registering DNS-SD services on
          the local network using MulticastDNS. Services may either be
          registered by dropping in a .dnssd file in /etc/systemd/dnssd/ (or
          the same dir below /run, /usr/lib), or through its D-Bus API.

        * The sd_notify() protocol can now with EXTEND_TIMEOUT_USEC=microsecond
          extend the effective start, runtime, and stop time. The service must
          continue to send EXTEND_TIMEOUT_USEC within the period specified to
          prevent the service manager from making the service as timedout.

        * elogind-resolved's DNSSEC support gained support for RFC 8080
          (Ed25519 keys and signatures).

        * The elogind-resolve command line tool gained a new set of options
          --set-dns=, --set-domain=, --set-llmnr=, --set-mdns=, --set-dnssec=,
          --set-nta= and --revert to configure per-interface DNS configuration
          dynamically during runtime. It's useful for pushing DNS information
          into elogind-resolved from DNS hook scripts that various interface
          managing software supports (such as pppd).

        * elogind-nspawn gained a new --network-namespace-path= command line
          option, which may be used to make a container join an existing
          network namespace, by specifying a path to a "netns" file.

        Contributions from: Alan Jenkins, Alan Robertson, Alessandro Ghedini,
        Andrew Jeddeloh, Antonio Rojas, Ari, asavah, bleep_blop, Carsten
        Strotmann, Christian Brauner, Christian Hesse, Clinton Roy, Collin
        Eggert, Cong Wang, Daniel Black, Daniel Lockyer, Daniel Rusek, Dimitri
        John Ledkov, Dmitry Rozhkov, Dongsu Park, Edward A. James, Evgeny
        Vereshchagin, Florian Klink, Franck Bui, Gwendal Grignou, Hans de
        Goede, Harald Hoyer, Hristo Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Ikey Doherty,
        Jakub Wilk, Jérémy Rosen, Jiahui Xie, John Lin, José Bollo, Josef
        Andersson, juga0, Krzysztof Nowicki, Kyle Walker, Lars Karlitski, Lars
        Kellogg-Stedman, Lauri Tirkkonen, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel,
        Luca Bruno, Lucas Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Lukáš Říha, Lukasz
        Rubaszewski, Maciej S. Szmigiero, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcus Folkesson,
        Martin Steuer, Mathieu Trudel-Lapierre, Matija Skala,
        Matthias-Christian Ott, Max Resch, Michael Biebl, Michael Vogt, Michal
        Koutný, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Muhammet Kara, Neil Brown, Olaf
        Hering, Ondrej Kozina, Patrik Flykt, Patryk Kocielnik, Peter Hutterer,
        Piotr Drąg, Razvan Cojocaru, Robin McCorkell, Roland Hieber, Saran
        Tunyasuvunakool, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Shuang Liu, Simon
        Arlott, Simon Peeters, Stanislav Angelovič, Stefan Agner, Susant
        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller, Tiago Salem
        Herrmann, Tinu Weber, Tom Stellard, Topi Miettinen, Torsten Hilbrich,
        Vito Caputo, Vladislav Vishnyakov, WaLyong Cho, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeal Jagannatha

        — Berlin, 2017-12-14

CHANGES WITH 235:

        * INCOMPATIBILITY: systemd-logind.service and other long-running
          services now run inside an IPv4/IPv6 sandbox, prohibiting them any IP
          communication with the outside. This generally improves security of
          the system, and is in almost all cases a safe and good choice, as
          these services do not and should not provide any network-facing
          functionality. However, systemd-logind uses the glibc NSS API to
          query the user database. This creates problems on systems where NSS
          is set up to directly consult network services for user database
          lookups. In particular, this creates incompatibilities with the
          "nss-nis" module, which attempts to directly contact the NIS/YP
          network servers it is configured for, and will now consistently
          fail. In such cases, it is possible to turn off IP sandboxing for
          systemd-logind.service (set IPAddressDeny= in its [Service] section
          to the empty string, via a .d/ unit file drop-in). Downstream
          distributions might want to update their nss-nis packaging to include
          such a drop-in snippet, accordingly, to hide this incompatibility
          from the user. Another option is to make use of glibc's nscd service
          to proxy such network requests through a privilege-separated, minimal
          local caching daemon, or to switch to more modern technologies such
          sssd, whose NSS hook-ups generally do not involve direct network
          access. In general, we think it's definitely time to question the
          implementation choices of nss-nis, i.e. whether it's a good idea
          today to embed a network-facing loadable module into all local
          processes that need to query the user database, including the most
          trivial and benign ones, such as "ls". For more details about
          IPAddressDeny= see below.

        * A new modprobe.d drop-in is now shipped by default that sets the
          bonding module option max_bonds=0. This overrides the kernel default,
          to avoid conflicts and ambiguity as to whether or not bond0 should be
          managed by systemd-networkd or not. This resolves multiple issues
          with bond0 properties not being applied, when bond0 is configured
          with systemd-networkd. Distributors may choose to not package this,
          however in that case users will be prevented from correctly managing
          bond0 interface using systemd-networkd.

        * systemd-analyze gained new verbs "get-log-level" and "get-log-target"
          which print the logging level and target of the system manager. They
          complement the existing "set-log-level" and "set-log-target" verbs
          used to change those values.

        * journald.conf gained a new boolean setting ReadKMsg= which defaults
          to on. If turned off kernel log messages will not be read by
          systemd-journald or included in the logs. It also gained a new
          setting LineMax= for configuring the maximum line length in
          STDOUT/STDERR log streams. The new default for this value is 48K, up
          from the previous hardcoded 2048.

        * A new unit setting RuntimeDirectoryPreserve= has been added, which
          allows more detailed control of what to do with a runtime directory
          configured with RuntimeDirectory= (i.e. a directory below /run or
          $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR) after a unit is stopped.

        * The RuntimeDirectory= setting for units gained support for creating
          deeper subdirectories below /run or $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR, instead of just
          one top-level directory.

        * Units gained new options StateDirectory=, CacheDirectory=,
          LogsDirectory= and ConfigurationDirectory= which are closely related
          to RuntimeDirectory= but manage per-service directories below
          /var/lib, /var/cache, /var/log and /etc. By making use of them it is
          possible to write unit files which when activated automatically gain
          properly owned service specific directories in these locations, thus
          making unit files self-contained and increasing compatibility with
          stateless systems and factory reset where /etc or /var are
          unpopulated at boot. Matching these new settings there's also
          StateDirectoryMode=, CacheDirectoryMode=, LogsDirectoryMode=,
          ConfigurationDirectoryMode= for configuring the access mode of these
          directories. These settings are particularly useful in combination
          with DynamicUser=yes as they provide secure, properly-owned,
          writable, and stateful locations for storage, excluded from the
          sandbox that such services live in otherwise.

        * Automake support has been removed from this release. systemd is now
          Meson-only.

        * systemd-journald will now aggressively cache client metadata during
          runtime, speeding up log write performance under pressure. This comes
          at a small price though: as much of the metadata is read
          asynchronously from /proc/ (and isn't implicitly attached to log
          datagrams by the kernel, like UID/GID/PID/SELinux are) this means the
          metadata stored alongside a log entry might be slightly
          out-of-date. Previously it could only be slightly newer than the log
          message. The time window is small however, and given that the kernel
          is unlikely to be improved anytime soon in this regard, this appears
          acceptable to us.

        * nss-myhostname/systemd-resolved will now by default synthesize an
          A/AAAA resource record for the "_gateway" hostname, pointing to the
          current default IP gateway. Previously it did that for the "gateway"
          name, hampering adoption, as some distributions wanted to leave that
          host name open for local use. The old behaviour may still be
          requested at build time.

        * systemd-networkd's [Address] section in .network files gained a new
          Scope= setting for configuring the IP address scope. The [Network]
          section gained a new boolean setting ConfigureWithoutCarrier= that
          tells systemd-networkd to ignore link sensing when configuring the
          device. The [DHCP] section gained a new Anonymize= boolean option for
          turning on a number of options suggested in RFC 7844. A new
          [RoutingPolicyRule] section has been added for configuring the IP
          routing policy. The [Route] section has gained support for a new
          Type= setting which permits configuring
          blackhole/unreachable/prohibit routes.

        * The [VRF] section in .netdev files gained a new Table= setting for
          configuring the routing table to use. The [Tunnel] section gained a
          new Independent= boolean field for configuring tunnels independent of
          an underlying network interface. The [Bridge] section gained a new
          GroupForwardMask= option for configuration of propagation of link
          local frames between bridge ports.

        * The WakeOnLan= setting in .link files gained support for a number of
          new modes. A new TCP6SegmentationOffload= setting has been added for
          configuring TCP/IPv6 hardware segmentation offload.

        * The IPv6 RA sender implementation may now optionally send out RDNSS
          and RDNSSL records to supply DNS configuration to peers.

        * systemd-nspawn gained support for a new --system-call-filter= command
          line option for adding and removing entries in the default system
          call filter it applies. Moreover systemd-nspawn has been changed to
          implement a system call whitelist instead of a blacklist.

        * systemd-run gained support for a new --pipe command line option. If
          used the STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR file descriptors passed to systemd-run
          are directly passed on to the activated transient service
          executable. This allows invoking arbitrary processes as systemd
          services (for example to take benefit of dependency management,
          accounting management, resource management or log management that is
          done automatically for services) — while still allowing them to be
          integrated in a classic UNIX shell pipeline.

        * When a service sends RELOAD=1 via sd_notify() and reload propagation
          using ReloadPropagationTo= is configured, a reload is now propagated
          to configured units. (Previously this was only done on explicitly
          requested reloads, using "systemctl reload" or an equivalent
          command.)

        * For each service unit a restart counter is now kept: it is increased
          each time the service is restarted due to Restart=, and may be
          queried using "systemctl show -p NRestarts …".

        * New system call filter groups @aio, @sync, @chown, @setuid, @memlock,
          @signal and @timer have been added, for usage with SystemCallFilter=
          in unit files and the new --system-call-filter= command line option
          of systemd-nspawn (see above).

        * ExecStart= lines in unit files gained two new modifiers: when a
          command line is prefixed with "!" the command will be executed as
          configured, except for the credentials applied by
          setuid()/setgid()/setgroups(). It is very similar to the pre-existing
          "+", but does still apply namespacing options unlike "+". There's
          also "!!" now, which is mostly identical, but becomes a NOP on
          systems that support ambient capabilities. This is useful to write
          unit files that work with ambient capabilities where possible but
          automatically fall back to traditional privilege dropping mechanisms
          on systems where this is not supported.

        * ListenNetlink= settings in socket units now support RDMA netlink
          sockets.

        * A new unit file setting LockPersonality= has been added which permits
          locking down the chosen execution domain ("personality") of a service
          during runtime.

        * A new special target "getty-pre.target" has been added, which is
          ordered before all text logins, and may be used to order services
          before textual logins acquire access to the console.

        * systemd will now attempt to load the virtio-rng.ko kernel module very
          early on if a VM environment supporting this is detected. This should
          improve entropy during early boot in virtualized environments.

        * A _netdev option is now supported in /etc/crypttab that operates in a
          similar way as the same option in /etc/fstab: it permits configuring
          encrypted devices that need to be ordered after the network is up.
          Following this logic, two new special targets
          remote-cryptsetup-pre.target and remote-cryptsetup.target have been
          added that are to cryptsetup.target what remote-fs.target and
          remote-fs-pre.target are to local-fs.target.

        * Service units gained a new UnsetEnvironment= setting which permits
          unsetting specific environment variables for services that are
          normally passed to it (for example in order to mask out locale
          settings for specific services that can't deal with it).

        * Units acquired a new boolean option IPAccounting=. When turned on, IP
          traffic accounting (packet count as well as byte count) is done for
          the service, and shown as part of "systemctl status" or "systemd-run
          --wait".

        * Service units acquired two new options IPAddressAllow= and
          IPAddressDeny=, taking a list of IPv4 or IPv6 addresses and masks,
          for configuring a simple IP access control list for all sockets of
          the unit. These options are available also on .slice and .socket
          units, permitting flexible access list configuration for individual
          services as well as groups of services (as defined by a slice unit),
          including system-wide. Note that IP ACLs configured this way are
          enforced on every single IPv4 and IPv6 socket created by any process
          of the service unit, and apply to ingress as well as egress traffic.

        * If CPUAccounting= or IPAccounting= is turned on for a unit a new
          structured log message is generated each time the unit is stopped,
          containing information about the consumed resources of this
          invocation.

        * A new setting KeyringMode= has been added to unit files, which may be
          used to control how the kernel keyring is set up for executed
          processes.

        * "systemctl poweroff", "systemctl reboot", "systemctl halt",
          "systemctl kexec" and "systemctl exit" are now always asynchronous in
          behaviour (that is: these commands return immediately after the
          operation was enqueued instead of waiting for the operation to
          complete). Previously, "systemctl poweroff" and "systemctl reboot"
          were asynchronous on systems using systemd-logind (i.e. almost
          always, and like they were on sysvinit), and the other three commands
          were unconditionally synchronous. With this release this is cleaned
          up, and callers will see the same asynchronous behaviour on all
          systems for all five operations.

        * systemd-logind gained new Halt() and CanHalt() bus calls for halting
          the system.

        * .timer units now accept calendar specifications in other timezones
          than UTC or the local timezone.

        * The tmpfiles snippet var.conf has been changed to create
          /var/log/btmp with access mode 0660 instead of 0600. It was owned by
          the "utmp" group already, and it appears to be generally understood
          that members of "utmp" can modify/flush the utmp/wtmp/lastlog/btmp
          databases. Previously this was implemented correctly for all these
          databases excepts btmp, which has been opened up like this now
          too. Note that while the other databases are world-readable
          (i.e. 0644), btmp is not and remains more restrictive.

        * The systemd-resolve tool gained a new --reset-server-features
          switch. When invoked like this systemd-resolved will forget
          everything it learnt about the features supported by the configured
          upstream DNS servers, and restarts the feature probing logic on the
          next resolver look-up for them at the highest feature level
          again.

        * The status dump systemd-resolved sends to the logs upon receiving
          SIGUSR1 now also includes information about all DNS servers it is
          configured to use, and the features levels it probed for them.

        Contributions from: Abdó Roig-Maranges, Alan Jenkins, Alexander
        Kuleshov, Andreas Rammhold, Andrew Jeddeloh, Andrew Soutar, Ansgar
        Burchardt, Beniamino Galvani, Benjamin Berg, Benjamin Robin, Charles
        Huber, Christian Hesse, Daniel Berrange, Daniel Kahn Gillmor, Daniel
        Mack, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Șerbănescu, Davide Cavalca, Dimitri John
        Ledkov, Diogo Pereira, Djalal Harouni, Dmitriy Geels, Dmitry Torokhov,
        ettavolt, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Fabio Kung, Felipe Sateler, Franck Bui,
        Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Insun Pyo, Ivan Kurnosov, Ivan Shapovalov,
        Jakub Wilk, Jan Synacek, Jason Gunthorpe, Jeremy Bicha, Jérémy Rosen,
        John Lin, jonasBoss, Jonathan Lebon, Jonathan Teh, Jon Ringle, Jörg
        Thalheim, Jouke Witteveen, juga0, Justin Capella, Justin Michaud,
        Kai-Heng Feng, Lennart Poettering, Lion Yang, Luca Bruno, Lucas
        Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Marcel Hollerbach, Marcus Lundblad, Martin
        Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Grzeschik, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert,
        Neil Brown, Nicolas Iooss, Patrik Flykt, pEJipE, Piotr Drąg, Russell
        Stuart, S. Fan, Shengyao Xue, Stefan Pietsch, Susant Sahani, Tejun Heo,
        Thomas Miller, Thomas Sailer, Tobias Hunger, Tomasz Pala, Tom
        Gundersen, Tommi Rantala, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, userwithuid,
        Vasilis Liaskovitis, Vito Caputo, WaLyong Cho, William Douglas, Xiang
        Fan, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2017-10-06

CHANGES WITH 234:

        * Meson is now supported as build system in addition to Automake. It is
          our plan to remove Automake in one of our next releases, so that
          Meson becomes our exclusive build system. Hence, please start using
          the Meson build system in your downstream packaging. There's plenty
          of documentation around how to use Meson, the extremely brief
          summary:

              ./autogen.sh && ./configure && make && sudo make install

          becomes:

              meson build && ninja -C build && sudo ninja -C build install

        * Unit files gained support for a new JobRunningTimeoutUSec= setting,
          which permits configuring a timeout on the time a job is
          running. This is particularly useful for setting timeouts on jobs for
          .device units.

        * Unit files gained two new options ConditionUser= and ConditionGroup=
          for conditionalizing units based on the identity of the user/group
          running a systemd user instance.

        * systemd-networkd now understands a new FlowLabel= setting in the
          [VXLAN] section of .network files, as well as a Priority= in
          [Bridge], GVRP= + MVRP= + LooseBinding= + ReorderHeader= in [VLAN]
          and GatewayOnlink= + IPv6Preference= + Protocol= in [Route]. It also
          gained support for configuration of GENEVE links, and IPv6 address
          labels. The [Network] section gained the new IPv6ProxyNDP= setting.

        * .link files now understand a new Port= setting.

        * systemd-networkd's DHCP support gained support for DHCP option 119
          (domain search list).

        * systemd-networkd gained support for serving IPv6 address ranges using
          the Router Advertisement protocol. The new .network configuration
          section [IPv6Prefix] may be used to configure the ranges to
          serve. This is implemented based on a new, minimal, native server
          implementation of RA.

        * journalctl's --output= switch gained support for a new parameter
          "short-iso-precise" for a mode where timestamps are shown as precise
          ISO date values.

        * systemd-udevd's "net_id" builtin may now generate stable network
          interface names from IBM PowerVM VIO devices as well as ACPI platform
          devices.

        * MulticastDNS support in systemd-resolved may now be explicitly
          enabled/disabled using the new MulticastDNS= configuration file
          option.

        * systemd-resolved may now optionally use libidn2 instead of the libidn
          for processing internationalized domain names. Support for libidn2
          should be considered experimental and should not be enabled by
          default yet.

        * "machinectl pull-tar" and related call may now do verification of
          downloaded images using SUSE-style .sha256 checksum files in addition
          to the already existing support for validating using Ubuntu-style
          SHA256SUMS files.

        * sd-bus gained support for a new sd_bus_message_appendv() call which
          is va_list equivalent of sd_bus_message_append().

        * sd-boot gained support for validating images using SHIM/MOK.

        * The SMACK code learnt support for "onlycap".

        * systemd-mount --umount is now much smarter in figuring out how to
          properly unmount a device given its mount or device path.

        * The code to call libnss_dns as a fallback from libnss_resolve when
          the communication with systemd-resolved fails was removed. This
          fallback was redundant and interfered with the [!UNAVAIL=return]
          suffix. See nss-resolve(8) for the recommended configuration.

        * systemd-logind may now be restarted without losing state. It stores
          the file descriptors for devices it manages in the system manager
          using the FDSTORE= mechanism. Please note that further changes in
          other components may be required to make use of this (for example
          Xorg has code to listen for stops of systemd-logind and terminate
          itself when logind is stopped or restarted, in order to avoid using
          stale file descriptors for graphical devices, which is now
          counterproductive and must be reverted in order for restarts of
          systemd-logind to be safe. See
          https://cgit.freedesktop.org/xorg/xserver/commit/?id=dc48bd653c7e101.)

        * All kernel install plugins are called with the environment variable
          KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID which is set to the machine ID given by
          /etc/machine-id. If the file is missing or empty, the variable is
          empty and BOOT_DIR_ABS is the path of a temporary directory which is
          removed after all the plugins exit. So, if KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID
          is empty, all plugins should not put anything in BOOT_DIR_ABS.

        Contributions from: Adrian Heine né Lang, Aggelos Avgerinos, Alexander
        Kurtz, Alexandros Frantzis, Alexey Brodkin, Alex Lu, Amir Pakdel, Amir
        Yalon, Anchor Cat, Anthony Parsons, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Gilbert,
        Benjamin Robin, Boucman, Charles Plessy, Chris Chiu, Chris Lamb,
        Christian Brauner, Christian Hesse, Colin Walters, Daniel Drake,
        Danielle Church, Daniel Molkentin, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Wang, Davide
        Cavalca, David Herrmann, David Michael, Dax Kelson, Dimitri John
        Ledkov, Djalal Harouni, Dušan Kazik, Elias Probst, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
        Federico Di Pierro, Felipe Sateler, Felix Zhang, Franck Bui, Gary
        Tierney, George McCollister, Giedrius Statkevičius, Hans de Goede,
        hecke, Hendrik Westerberg, Hristo Venev, Ian Wienand, Insun Pyo, Ivan
        Shapovalov, James Cowgill, James Hemsing, Janne Heß, Jan Synacek, Jason
        Reeder, João Paulo Rechi Vita, John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jörg
        Thalheim, Josef Andersson, Josef Gajdusek, Julian Mehne, Kai Krakow,
        Krzysztof Jackiewicz, Lars Karlitski, Lennart Poettering, Lluís Gili,
        Lucas Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Marcin Bachry, Marcus Cooper, Mark Stosberg, Martin Pitt, Matija Skala,
        Matt Clarkson, Matthew Garrett, Matthias Greiner, Matthijs van Duin,
        Max Resch, Michael Biebl, Michal Koutný, Michal Sekletar, Michal
        Soltys, Michal Suchanek, Mike Gilbert, Nate Clark, Nathaniel R. Lewis,
        Neil Brown, Nikolai Kondrashov, Pascal S. de Kloe, Pat Riehecky, Patrik
        Flykt, Paul Kocialkowski, Peter Hutterer, Philip Withnall, Piotr
        Szydełko, Rafael Fontenelle, Ray Strode, Richard Maw, Roelf Wichertjes,
        Ronny Chevalier, Sarang S. Dalal, Sjoerd Simons, slodki, Stefan
        Schweter, Susant Sahani, Ted Wood, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller, Thomas
        H. P. Andersen, Timothée Ravier, Tobias Jungel, Tobias Stoeckmann, Tom
        Gundersen, Tom Yan, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog,
        userwithuid, Vito Caputo, Waldemar Brodkorb, WaLyong Cho, Yu, Li-Yu,
        Yusuke Nojima, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Дамјан
        Георгиевски

        — Berlin, 2017-07-12

CHANGES WITH 233:

        * The "hybrid" control group mode has been modified to improve
          compatibility with "legacy" cgroups-v1 setups. Specifically, the
          "hybrid" setup of /sys/fs/cgroup is now pretty much identical to
          "legacy" (including /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd as "name=systemd" named
          cgroups-v1 hierarchy), the only externally visible change being that
          the cgroups-v2 hierarchy is also mounted, to
          /sys/fs/cgroup/unified. This should provide a large degree of
          compatibility with "legacy" cgroups-v1, while taking benefit of the
          better management capabilities of cgroups-v2.

        * The default control group setup mode may be selected both a boot-time
          via a set of kernel command line parameters (specifically:
          systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy= and
          systemd.legacy_systemd_cgroup_controller=), as well as a compile-time
          default selected on the configure command line
          (--with-default-hierarchy=). The upstream default is "hybrid"
          (i.e. the cgroups-v1 + cgroups-v2 mixture discussed above) now, but
          this will change in a future systemd version to be "unified" (pure
          cgroups-v2 mode). The third option for the compile time option is
          "legacy", to enter pure cgroups-v1 mode. We recommend downstream
          distributions to default to "hybrid" mode for release distributions,
          starting with v233. We recommend "unified" for development
          distributions (specifically: distributions such as Fedora's rawhide)
          as that's where things are headed in the long run. Use "legacy" for
          greatest stability and compatibility only.

        * Note one current limitation of "unified" and "hybrid" control group
          setup modes: the kernel currently does not permit the systemd --user
          instance (i.e. unprivileged code) to migrate processes between two
          disconnected cgroup subtrees, even if both are managed and owned by
          the user. This effectively means "systemd-run --user --scope" doesn't
          work when invoked from outside of any "systemd --user" service or
          scope. Specifically, it is not supported from session scopes. We are
          working on fixing this in a future systemd version. (See #3388 for
          further details about this.)

        * DBus policy files are now installed into /usr rather than /etc. Make
          sure your system has dbus >= 1.9.18 running before upgrading to this
          version, or override the install path with --with-dbuspolicydir= .

        * All python scripts shipped with systemd (specifically: the various
          tests written in Python) now require Python 3.

        * systemd unit tests can now run standalone (without the source or
          build directories), and can be installed into /usr/lib/systemd/tests/
          with 'make install-tests'.

        * Note that from this version on, CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API_HASH,
          CONFIG_CRYPTO_HMAC and CONFIG_CRYPTO_SHA256 need to be enabled in the
          kernel.

        * Support for the %c, %r, %R specifiers in unit files has been
          removed. Specifiers are not supposed to be dependent on configuration
          in the unit file itself (so that they resolve the same regardless
          where used in the unit files), but these specifiers were influenced
          by the Slice= option.

        * The shell invoked by debug-shell.service now defaults to /bin/sh in
          all cases. If distributions want to use a different shell for this
          purpose (for example Fedora's /sbin/sushell) they need to specify
          this explicitly at configure time using --with-debug-shell=.

        * The confirmation spawn prompt has been reworked to offer the
          following choices:

           (c)ontinue, proceed without asking anymore
           (D)ump, show the state of the unit
           (f)ail, don't execute the command and pretend it failed
           (h)elp
           (i)nfo, show a short summary of the unit
           (j)obs, show jobs that are in progress
           (s)kip, don't execute the command and pretend it succeeded
           (y)es, execute the command

          The 'n' choice for the confirmation spawn prompt has been removed,
          because its meaning was confusing.

          The prompt may now also be redirected to an alternative console by
          specifying the console as parameter to systemd.confirm_spawn=.

        * Services of Type=notify require a READY=1 notification to be sent
          during startup. If no such message is sent, the service now fails,
          even if the main process exited with a successful exit code.

        * Services that fail to start up correctly now always have their
          ExecStopPost= commands executed. Previously, they'd enter "failed"
          state directly, without executing these commands.

        * The option MulticastDNS= of network configuration files has acquired
          an actual implementation. With MulticastDNS=yes a host can resolve
          names of remote hosts and reply to mDNS A and AAAA requests.

        * When units are about to be started an additional check is now done to
          ensure that all dependencies of type BindsTo= (when used in
          combination with After=) have been started.

        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "syscall-filter" which shows which
          system call groups are defined for the SystemCallFilter= unit file
          setting, and which system calls they contain.

        * A new system call filter group "@filesystem" has been added,
          consisting of various file system related system calls. Group
          "@reboot" has been added, covering reboot, kexec and shutdown related
          calls. Finally, group "@swap" has been added covering swap
          configuration related calls.

        * A new unit file option RestrictNamespaces= has been added that may be
          used to restrict access to the various process namespace types the
          Linux kernel provides. Specifically, it may be used to take away the
          right for a service unit to create additional file system, network,
          user, and other namespaces. This sandboxing option is particularly
          relevant due to the high amount of recently discovered namespacing
          related vulnerabilities in the kernel.

        * systemd-udev's .link files gained support for a new AutoNegotiation=
          setting for configuring Ethernet auto-negotiation.

        * systemd-networkd's .network files gained support for a new
          ListenPort= setting in the [DHCP] section to explicitly configure the
          UDP client port the DHCP client shall listen on.

        * .network files gained a new Unmanaged= boolean setting for explicitly
          excluding one or more interfaces from management by systemd-networkd.

        * The systemd-networkd ProxyARP= option has been renamed to
          IPV4ProxyARP=. Similarly, VXLAN-specific option ARPProxy= has been
          renamed to ReduceARPProxy=. The old names continue to be available
          for compatibility.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring IPv6 Proxy NDP
          addresses via the new IPv6ProxyNDPAddress= .network file setting.

        * systemd-networkd's bonding device support gained support for two new
          configuration options ActiveSlave= and PrimarySlave=.

        * The various options in the [Match] section of .network files gained
          support for negative matching.

        * New systemd-specific mount options are now understood in /etc/fstab:

          x-systemd.mount-timeout= may be used to configure the maximum
          permitted runtime of the mount command.

          x-systemd.device-bound may be set to bind a mount point to its
          backing device unit, in order to automatically remove a mount point
          if its backing device is unplugged. This option may also be
          configured through the new SYSTEMD_MOUNT_DEVICE_BOUND udev property
          on the block device, which is now automatically set for all CDROM
          drives, so that mounted CDs are automatically unmounted when they are
          removed from the drive.

          x-systemd.after= and x-systemd.before= may be used to explicitly
          order a mount after or before another unit or mount point.

        * Enqueued start jobs for device units are now automatically garbage
          collected if there are no jobs waiting for them anymore.

        * systemctl list-jobs gained two new switches: with --after, for every
          queued job the jobs it's waiting for are shown; with --before the
          jobs which it's blocking are shown.

        * systemd-nspawn gained support for ephemeral boots from disk images
          (or in other words: --ephemeral and --image= may now be
          combined). Moreover, ephemeral boots are now supported for normal
          directories, even if the backing file system is not btrfs. Of course,
          if the file system does not support file system snapshots or
          reflinks, the initial copy operation will be relatively expensive, but
          this should still be suitable for many use cases.

        * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now support
          specifications relative to the end of a month by using "~" instead of
          "-" as separator between month and day. For example, "*-02~03" means
          "the third last day in February". In addition a new syntax for
          repeated events has been added using the "/" character. For example,
          "9..17/2:00" means "every two hours from 9am to 5pm".

        * systemd-socket-proxyd gained a new parameter --connections-max= for
          configuring the maximum number of concurrent connections.

        * sd-id128 gained a new API for generating unique IDs for the host in a
          way that does not leak the machine ID. Specifically,
          sd_id128_get_machine_app_specific() derives an ID based on the
          machine ID a in well-defined, non-reversible, stable way. This is
          useful whenever an identifier for the host is needed but where the
          identifier shall not be useful to identify the system beyond the
          scope of the application itself. (Internally this uses HMAC-SHA256 as
          keyed hash function using the machine ID as input.)

        * NotifyAccess= gained a new supported value "exec". When set
          notifications are accepted from all processes systemd itself invoked,
          including all control processes.

        * .nspawn files gained support for defining overlay mounts using the
          Overlay= and OverlayReadOnly= options. Previously this functionality
          was only available on the systemd-nspawn command line.

        * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --overlay= options gained support for
          bind/overlay mounts whose source lies within the container tree by
          prefixing the source path with "+".

        * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --overlay= options gained support for
          automatically allocating a temporary source directory in /var/tmp
          that is removed when the container dies. Specifically, if the source
          directory is specified as empty string this mechanism is selected. An
          example usage is --overlay=+/var::/var, which creates an overlay
          mount based on the original /var contained in the image, overlayed
          with a temporary directory in the host's /var/tmp. This way changes
          to /var are automatically flushed when the container shuts down.

        * systemd-nspawn --image= option does now permit raw file system block
          devices (in addition to images containing partition tables, as
          before).

        * The disk image dissection logic in systemd-nspawn gained support for
          automatically setting up LUKS encrypted as well as Verity protected
          partitions. When a container is booted from an encrypted image the
          passphrase is queried at start-up time. When a container with Verity
          data is started, the root hash is search in a ".roothash" file
          accompanying the disk image (alternatively, pass the root hash via
          the new --root-hash= command line option).

        * A new tool /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-dissect has been added that may
          be used to dissect disk images the same way as systemd-nspawn does
          it, following the Bootable Partition Specification. It may even be
          used to mount disk images with complex partition setups (including
          LUKS and Verity partitions) to a local host directory, in order to
          inspect them. This tool is not considered public API (yet), and is
          thus not installed into /usr/bin. Please do not rely on its
          existence, since it might go away or be changed in later systemd
          versions.

        * A new generator "systemd-verity-generator" has been added, similar in
          style to "systemd-cryptsetup-generator", permitting automatic setup of
          Verity root partitions when systemd boots up. In order to make use of
          this your partition setup should follow the Discoverable Partitions
          Specification, and the GPT partition ID of the root file system
          partition should be identical to the upper 128bit of the Verity root
          hash. The GPT partition ID of the Verity partition protecting it
          should be the lower 128bit of the Verity root hash. If the partition
          image follows this model it is sufficient to specify a single
          "roothash=" kernel command line argument to both configure which root
          image and verity partition to use as well as the root hash for
          it. Note that systemd-nspawn's Verity support follows the same
          semantics, meaning that disk images with proper Verity data in place
          may be booted in containers with systemd-nspawn as well as on
          physical systems via the verity generator. Also note that the "mkosi"
          tool available at https://github.com/systemd/mkosi has been updated
          to generate Verity protected disk images following this scheme. In
          fact, it has been updated to generate disk images that optionally
          implement a complete UEFI SecureBoot trust chain, involving a signed
          kernel and initrd image that incorporates such a root hash as well as
          a Verity-enabled root partition.

        * The hardware database (hwdb) udev supports has been updated to carry
          accelerometer quirks.

        * All system services are now run with a fresh kernel keyring set up
          for them. The invocation ID is stored by default in it, thus
          providing a safe, non-overridable way to determine the invocation
          ID of each service.

        * Service unit files gained new BindPaths= and BindReadOnlyPaths=
          options for bind mounting arbitrary paths in a service-specific
          way. When these options are used, arbitrary host or service files and
          directories may be mounted to arbitrary locations in the service's
          view.

        * Documentation has been added that lists all of systemd's low-level
          environment variables:

          https://github.com/systemd/systemd/blob/master/doc/ENVIRONMENT.md

        * sd-daemon gained a new API sd_is_socket_sockaddr() for determining
          whether a specific socket file descriptor matches a specified socket
          address.

        * systemd-firstboot has been updated to check for the
          systemd.firstboot= kernel command line option. It accepts a boolean
          and when set to false the first boot questions are skipped.

        * systemd-fstab-generator has been updated to check for the
          systemd.volatile= kernel command line option, which either takes an
          optional boolean parameter or the special value "state". If used the
          system may be booted in a "volatile" boot mode. Specifically,
          "systemd.volatile" is used, the root directory will be mounted as
          tmpfs, and only /usr is mounted from the actual root file system. If
          "systemd.volatile=state" is used, the root directory will be mounted
          as usual, but /var is mounted as tmpfs. This concept provides similar
          functionality as systemd-nspawn's --volatile= option, but provides it
          on physical boots. Use this option for implementing stateless
          systems, or testing systems with all state and/or configuration reset
          to the defaults. (Note though that many distributions are not
          prepared to boot up without a populated /etc or /var, though.)

        * systemd-gpt-auto-generator gained support for LUKS encrypted root
          partitions. Previously it only supported LUKS encrypted partitions
          for all other uses, except for the root partition itself.

        * Socket units gained support for listening on AF_VSOCK sockets for
          communication in virtualized QEMU environments.

        * The "configure" script gained a new option --with-fallback-hostname=
          for specifying the fallback hostname to use if none is configured in
          /etc/hostname. For example, by specifying
          --with-fallback-hostname=fedora it is possible to default to a
          hostname of "fedora" on pristine installations.

        * systemd-cgls gained support for a new --unit= switch for listing only
          the control groups of a specific unit. Similar --user-unit= has been
          added for listing only the control groups of a specific user unit.

        * systemd-mount gained a new --umount switch for unmounting a mount or
          automount point (and all mount/automount points below it).

        * systemd will now refuse full configuration reloads (via systemctl
          daemon-reload and related calls) unless at least 16MiB of free space
          are available in /run. This is a safety precaution in order to ensure
          that generators can safely operate after the reload completed.

        * A new unit file option RootImage= has been added, which has a similar
          effect as RootDirectory= but mounts the service's root directory from
          a disk image instead of plain directory. This logic reuses the same
          image dissection and mount logic that systemd-nspawn already uses,
          and hence supports any disk images systemd-nspawn supports, including
          those following the Discoverable Partition Specification, as well as
          Verity enabled images. This option enables systemd to run system
          services directly off disk images acting as resource bundles,
          possibly even including full integrity data.

        * A new MountAPIVFS= unit file option has been added, taking a boolean
          argument. If enabled /proc, /sys and /dev (collectively called the
          "API VFS") will be mounted for the service. This is only relevant if
          RootDirectory= or RootImage= is used for the service, as these mounts
          are of course in place in the host mount namespace anyway.

        * systemd-nspawn gained support for a new --pivot-root= switch. If
          specified the root directory within the container image is pivoted to
          the specified mount point, while the original root disk is moved to a
          different place. This option enables booting of ostree images
          directly with systemd-nspawn.

        * The systemd build scripts will no longer complain if the NTP server
          addresses are not changed from the defaults. Google now supports
          these NTP servers officially. We still recommend downstreams to
          properly register an NTP pool with the NTP pool project though.

        * coredumpctl gained a new "--reverse" option for printing the list
          of coredumps in reverse order.

        * coredumpctl will now show additional information about truncated and
          inaccessible coredumps, as well as coredumps that are still being
          processed. It also gained a new --quiet switch for suppressing
          additional informational message in its output.

        * coredumpctl gained support for only showing coredumps newer and/or
          older than specific timestamps, using the new --since= and --until=
          options, reminiscent of journalctl's options by the same name.

        * The systemd-coredump logic has been improved so that it may be reused
          to collect backtraces in non-compiled languages, for example in
          scripting languages such as Python.

        * machinectl will now show the UID shift of local containers, if user
          namespacing is enabled for them.

        * systemd will now optionally run "environment generator" binaries at
          configuration load time. They may be used to add environment
          variables to the environment block passed to services invoked. One
          user environment generator is shipped by default that sets up
          environment variables based on files dropped into /etc/environment.d
          and ~/.config/environment.d/.

        * systemd-resolved now includes the new, recently published 2017 DNSSEC
          root key (KSK).

        * hostnamed has been updated to report a new chassis type of
          "convertible" to cover "foldable" laptops that can both act as a
          tablet and as a laptop, such as various Lenovo Yoga devices.

        Contributions from: Adrián López, Alexander Galanin, Alexander
        Kochetkov, Alexandros Frantzis, Andrey Ulanov, Antoine Eiche, Baruch
        Siach, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Robin, Björn, Brandon Philips, Cédric
        Schieli, Charles (Chas) Williams, Christian Hesse, Daniele Medri,
        Daniel Drake, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Wagner, Dan Streetman, Dave Reisner,
        David Glasser, David Herrmann, David Michael, Djalal Harouni, Dmitry
        Khlebnikov, Dmitry Rozhkov, Dongsu Park, Douglas Christman, Earnestly,
        Emil Soleyman, Eric Cook, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Fionn
        Cleary, Florian Klink, Francesco Brozzu, Franck Bui, Gabriel Rauter,
        Gianluca Boiano, Giedrius Statkevičius, Graeme Lawes, Hans de Goede,
        Harald Hoyer, Ian Kelling, Ivan Shapovalov, Jakub Wilk, Janne Heß, Jan
        Synacek, Jason Reeder, Jonathan Boulle, Jörg Thalheim, Jouke Witteveen,
        Karl Kraus, Kees Cook, Keith Busch, Kieran Colford, kilian-k, Lennart
        Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas Werkmeister, Lukas Rusak, Maarten de
        Vries, Maks Naumov, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Andre Lureau, Marcin Bachry,
        Mark Stosberg, Martin Ejdestig, Martin Pitt, Mauricio Faria de
        Oliveira, micah, Michael Biebl, Michael Shields, Michal Schmidt, Michal
        Sekletar, Michel Kraus, Mike Gilbert, Mikko Ylinen, Mirza Krak,
        Namhyung Kim, nikolaof, peoronoob, Peter Hutterer, Peter Körner, Philip
        Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Ray Strode, Reverend Homer, Rike-Benjamin
        Schuppner, Robert Kreuzer, Ronny Chevalier, Ruslan Bilovol, sammynx,
        Sergey Ptashnick, Sergiusz Urbaniak, Stefan Berger, Stefan Hajnoczi,
        Stefan Schweter, Stuart McLaren, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève,
        Taylor Smock, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tibor
        Nagy, Tobias Stoeckmann, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Viktar
        Vaŭčkievič, Viktor Mihajlovski, Vitaly Sulimov, Waldemar Brodkorb,
        Walter Garcia-Fontes, Wim de With, Yassine Imounachen, Yi EungJun,
        YunQiang Su, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Александр
        Тихонов

        — Berlin, 2017-03-01

CHANGES WITH 232:

        * udev now runs with MemoryDenyWriteExecute=, RestrictRealtime= and
          RestrictAddressFamilies= enabled. These sandboxing options should
          generally be compatible with the various external udev call-out
          binaries we are aware of, however there may be exceptions, in
          particular when exotic languages for these call-outs are used. In
          this case, consider turning off these settings locally.

        * The new RemoveIPC= option can be used to remove IPC objects owned by
          the user or group of a service when that service exits.

        * The new ProtectKernelModules= option can be used to disable explicit
          load and unload operations of kernel modules by a service. In
          addition access to /usr/lib/modules is removed if this option is set.

        * ProtectSystem= option gained a new value "strict", which causes the
          whole file system tree with the exception of /dev, /proc, and /sys,
          to be remounted read-only for a service.

        * The new ProtectKernelTunables= option can be used to disable
          modification of configuration files in /sys and /proc by a service.
          Various directories and files are remounted read-only, so access is
          restricted even if the file permissions would allow it.

        * The new ProtectControlGroups= option can be used to disable write
          access by a service to /sys/fs/cgroup.

        * Various systemd services have been hardened with
          ProtectKernelTunables=yes, ProtectControlGroups=yes,
          RestrictAddressFamilies=.

        * Support for dynamically creating users for the lifetime of a service
          has been added. If DynamicUser=yes is specified, user and group IDs
          will be allocated from the range 61184..65519 for the lifetime of the
          service. They can be resolved using the new nss-systemd.so NSS
          module. The module must be enabled in /etc/nsswitch.conf. Services
          started in this way have PrivateTmp= and RemoveIPC= enabled, so that
          any resources allocated by the service will be cleaned up when the
          service exits. They also have ProtectHome=read-only and
          ProtectSystem=strict enabled, so they are not able to make any
          permanent modifications to the system.

        * The nss-systemd module also always resolves root and nobody, making
          it possible to have no /etc/passwd or /etc/group files in minimal
          container or chroot environments.

        * Services may be started with their own user namespace using the new
          boolean PrivateUsers= option. Only root, nobody, and the uid/gid
          under which the service is running are mapped. All other users are
          mapped to nobody.

        * Support for the cgroup namespace has been added to systemd-nspawn. If
          supported by kernel, the container system started by systemd-nspawn
          will have its own view of the cgroup hierarchy. This new behaviour
          can be disabled using $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_USE_CGNS environment variable.

        * The new MemorySwapMax= option can be used to limit the maximum swap
          usage under the unified cgroup hierarchy.

        * Support for the CPU controller in the unified cgroup hierarchy has
          been added, via the CPUWeight=, CPUStartupWeight=, CPUAccounting=
          options. This controller requires out-of-tree patches for the kernel
          and the support is provisional.

        * Mount and automount units may now be created transiently
          (i.e. dynamically at runtime via the bus API, instead of requiring
          unit files in the file system).

        * systemd-mount is a new tool which may mount file systems – much like
          mount(8), optionally pulling in additional dependencies through
          transient .mount and .automount units. For example, this tool
          automatically runs fsck on a backing block device before mounting,
          and allows the automount logic to be used dynamically from the
          command line for establishing mount points. This tool is particularly
          useful when dealing with removable media, as it will ensure fsck is
          run – if necessary – before the first access and that the file system
          is quickly unmounted after each access by utilizing the automount
          logic. This maximizes the chance that the file system on the
          removable media stays in a clean state, and if it isn't in a clean
          state is fixed automatically.

        * LazyUnmount=yes option for mount units has been added to expose the
          umount --lazy option. Similarly, ForceUnmount=yes exposes the --force
          option.

        * /efi will be used as the mount point of the EFI boot partition, if
          the directory is present, and the mount point was not configured
          through other means (e.g. fstab). If /efi directory does not exist,
          /boot will be used as before. This makes it easier to automatically
          mount the EFI partition on systems where /boot is used for something
          else.

        * When operating on GPT disk images for containers, systemd-nspawn will
          now mount the ESP to /boot or /efi according to the same rules as PID
          1 running on a host. This allows tools like "bootctl" to operate
          correctly within such containers, in order to make container images
          bootable on physical systems.

        * disk/by-id and disk/by-path symlinks are now created for NVMe drives.

        * Two new user session targets have been added to support running
          graphical sessions under the systemd --user instance:
          graphical-session.target and graphical-session-pre.target. See
          systemd.special(7) for a description of how those targets should be
          used.

        * The vconsole initialization code has been significantly reworked to
          use KD_FONT_OP_GET/SET ioctls instead of KD_FONT_OP_COPY and better
          support unicode keymaps. Font and keymap configuration will now be
          copied to all allocated virtual consoles.

        * FreeBSD's bhyve virtualization is now detected.

        * Information recorded in the journal for core dumps now includes the
          contents of /proc/mountinfo and the command line of the process at
          the top of the process hierarchy (which is usually the init process
          of the container).

        * systemd-journal-gatewayd learned the --directory= option to serve
          files from the specified location.

        * journalctl --root=… can be used to peruse the journal in the
          /var/log/ directories inside of a container tree. This is similar to
          the existing --machine= option, but does not require the container to
          be active.

        * The hardware database has been extended to support
          ID_INPUT_TRACKBALL, used in addition to ID_INPUT_MOUSE to identify
          trackball devices.

          MOUSE_WHEEL_CLICK_ANGLE_HORIZONTAL hwdb property has been added to
          specify the click rate for mice which include a horizontal wheel with
          a click rate that is different than the one for the vertical wheel.

        * systemd-run gained a new --wait option that makes service execution
          synchronous. (Specifically, the command will not return until the
          specified service binary exited.)

        * systemctl gained a new --wait option that causes the start command to
          wait until the units being started have terminated again.

        * A new journal output mode "short-full" has been added which displays
          timestamps with abbreviated English day names and adds a timezone
          suffix. Those timestamps include more information than the default
          "short" output mode, and can be passed directly to journalctl's
          --since= and --until= options.

        * /etc/resolv.conf will be bind-mounted into containers started by
          systemd-nspawn, if possible, so any changes to resolv.conf contents
          are automatically propagated to the container.

        * The number of instances for socket-activated services originating
          from a single IP address can be limited with
          MaxConnectionsPerSource=, extending the existing setting of
          MaxConnections=.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for vcan ("Virtual CAN") interface
          configuration.

        * .netdev and .network configuration can now be extended through
          drop-ins.

        * UDP Segmentation Offload, TCP Segmentation Offload, Generic
          Segmentation Offload, Generic Receive Offload, Large Receive Offload
          can be enabled and disabled using the new UDPSegmentationOffload=,
          TCPSegmentationOffload=, GenericSegmentationOffload=,
          GenericReceiveOffload=, LargeReceiveOffload= options in the
          [Link] section of .link files.

        * The Spanning Tree Protocol, Priority, Aging Time, and the Default
          Port VLAN ID can be configured for bridge devices using the new STP=,
          Priority=, AgeingTimeSec=, and DefaultPVID= settings in the [Bridge]
          section of .netdev files.

        * The route table to which routes received over DHCP or RA should be
          added can be configured with the new RouteTable= option in the [DHCP]
          and [IPv6AcceptRA] sections of .network files.

        * The Address Resolution Protocol can be disabled on links managed by
          systemd-networkd using the ARP=no setting in the [Link] section of
          .network files.

        * New environment variables $SERVICE_RESULT, $EXIT_CODE and
          $EXIT_STATUS are set for ExecStop= and ExecStopPost= commands, and
          encode information about the result and exit codes of the current
          service runtime cycle.

        * systemd-sysctl will now configure kernel parameters in the order
          they occur in the configuration files. This matches what sysctl
          has been traditionally doing.

        * kernel-install "plugins" that are executed to perform various
          tasks after a new kernel is added and before an old one is removed
          can now return a special value to terminate the procedure and
          prevent any later plugins from running.

        * Journald's SplitMode=login setting has been deprecated. It has been
          removed from documentation, and its use is discouraged. In a future
          release it will be completely removed, and made equivalent to current
          default of SplitMode=uid.

        * Storage=both option setting in /etc/systemd/coredump.conf has been
          removed. With fast LZ4 compression storing the core dump twice is not
          useful.

        * The --share-system systemd-nspawn option has been replaced with an
          (undocumented) variable $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_SYSTEM, but the use of
          this functionality is discouraged. In addition the variables
          $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_NS_IPC, $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_NS_PID,
          $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_NS_UTS may be used to control the unsharing of
          individual namespaces.

        * "machinectl list" now shows the IP address of running containers in
          the output, as well as OS release information.

        * "loginctl list" now shows the TTY of each session in the output.

        * sd-bus gained new API calls sd_bus_track_set_recursive(),
          sd_bus_track_get_recursive(), sd_bus_track_count_name(),
          sd_bus_track_count_sender(). They permit usage of sd_bus_track peer
          tracking objects in a "recursive" mode, where a single client can be
          counted multiple times, if it takes multiple references.

        * sd-bus gained new API calls sd_bus_set_exit_on_disconnect() and
          sd_bus_get_exit_on_disconnect(). They may be used to make a
          process using sd-bus automatically exit if the bus connection is
          severed.

        * Bus clients of the service manager may now "pin" loaded units into
          memory, by taking an explicit reference on them. This is useful to
          ensure the client can retrieve runtime data about the service even
          after the service completed execution. Taking such a reference is
          available only for privileged clients and should be helpful to watch
          running services in a race-free manner, and in particular collect
          information about exit statuses and results.

        * The nss-resolve module has been changed to strictly return UNAVAIL
          when communication via D-Bus with resolved failed, and NOTFOUND when
          a lookup completed but was negative. This means it is now possible to
          neatly configure fallbacks using nsswitch.conf result checking
          expressions. Taking benefit of this, the new recommended
          configuration line for the "hosts" entry in /etc/nsswitch.conf is:

              hosts: files mymachines resolve [!UNAVAIL=return] dns myhostname

        * A new setting CtrlAltDelBurstAction= has been added to
          /etc/systemd/system.conf which may be used to configure the precise
          behaviour if the user on the console presses Ctrl-Alt-Del more often
          than 7 times in 2s. Previously this would unconditionally result in
          an expedited, immediate reboot. With this new setting the precise
          operation may be configured in more detail, and also turned off
          entirely.

        * In .netdev files two new settings RemoteChecksumTx= and
          RemoteChecksumRx= are now understood that permit configuring the
          remote checksumming logic for VXLAN networks.

        * The service manager learnt a new "invocation ID" concept for invoked
          services. Each runtime cycle of a service will get a new invocation
          ID (a 128bit random UUID) assigned that identifies the current
          run of the service uniquely and globally. A new invocation ID
          is generated each time a service starts up. The journal will store
          the invocation ID of a service along with any logged messages, thus
          making the invocation ID useful for matching the online runtime of a
          service with the offline log data it generated in a safe way without
          relying on synchronized timestamps. In many ways this new service
          invocation ID concept is similar to the kernel's boot ID concept that
          uniquely and globally identifies the runtime of each boot. The
          invocation ID of a service is passed to the service itself via an
          environment variable ($INVOCATION_ID). A new bus call
          GetUnitByInvocationID() has been added that is similar to GetUnit()
          but instead of retrieving the bus path for a unit by its name
          retrieves it by its invocation ID. The returned path is valid only as
          long as the passed invocation ID is current.

        * systemd-resolved gained a new "DNSStubListener" setting in
          resolved.conf. It either takes a boolean value or the special values
          "udp" and "tcp", and configures whether to enable the stub DNS
          listener on 127.0.0.53:53.

        * IP addresses configured via networkd may now carry additional
          configuration settings supported by the kernel. New options include:
          HomeAddress=, DuplicateAddressDetection=, ManageTemporaryAddress=,
          PrefixRoute=, AutoJoin=.

        * The PAM configuration fragment file for "user@.service" shipped with
          systemd (i.e. the --user instance of systemd) has been stripped to
          the minimum necessary to make the system boot. Previously, it
          contained Fedora-specific stanzas that did not apply to other
          distributions. It is expected that downstream distributions add
          additional configuration lines, matching their needs to this file,
          using it only as rough template of what systemd itself needs. Note
          that this reduced fragment does not even include an invocation of
          pam_limits which most distributions probably want to add, even though
          systemd itself does not need it. (There's also the new build time
          option --with-pamconfdir=no to disable installation of the PAM
          fragment entirely.)

        * If PrivateDevices=yes is set for a service the CAP_SYS_RAWIO
          capability is now also dropped from its set (in addition to
          CAP_SYS_MKNOD as before).

        * In service unit files it is now possible to connect a specific named
          file descriptor with stdin/stdout/stdout of an executed service. The
          name may be specified in matching .socket units using the
          FileDescriptorName= setting.

        * A number of journal settings may now be configured on the kernel
          command line. Specifically, the following options are now understood:
          systemd.journald.max_level_console=,
          systemd.journald.max_level_store=,
          systemd.journald.max_level_syslog=, systemd.journald.max_level_kmsg=,
          systemd.journald.max_level_wall=.

        * "systemctl is-enabled --full" will now show by which symlinks a unit
          file is enabled in the unit dependency tree.

        * Support for VeraCrypt encrypted partitions has been added to the
          "cryptsetup" logic and /etc/crypttab.

        * systemd-detect-virt gained support for a new --private-users switch
          that checks whether the invoking processes are running inside a user
          namespace. Similar, a new special value "private-users" for the
          existing ConditionVirtualization= setting has been added, permitting
          skipping of specific units in user namespace environments.

        Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alexander Kuleshov, Alfie John,
        Andreas Henriksson, Andrew Jeddeloh, Balázs Úr, Bart Rulon, Benjamin
        Richter, Ben Gamari, Ben Harris, Brian J. Murrell, Christian Brauner,
        Christian Rebischke, Clinton Roy, Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez,
        Daniel Hahler, Daniel Mack, Daniel Maixner, Daniel Rusek, Dan Dedrick,
        Davide Cavalca, David Herrmann, David Michael, Dennis Wassenberg,
        Djalal Harouni, Dongsu Park, Douglas Christman, Elias Probst, Eric
        Cook, Erik Karlsson, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Felix Zhang,
        Franck Bui, George Hilliard, Giuseppe Scrivano, HATAYAMA Daisuke,
        Heikki Kemppainen, Hendrik Brueckner, hi117, Ismo Puustinen, Ivan
        Shapovalov, Jakub Filak, Jakub Wilk, Jan Synacek, Jason Kölker,
        Jean-Sébastien Bour, Jiří Pírko, Jonathan Boulle, Jorge Niedbalski,
        Keith Busch, kristbaum, Kyle Russell, Lans Zhang, Lennart Poettering,
        Leonardo Brondani Schenkel, Lucas Werkmeister, Luca Bruno, Lukáš
        Nykrýn, Maciek Borzecki, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou,
        Marcel Holtmann, Marcos Mello, Martin Ejdestig, Martin Pitt, Matej
        Habrnal, Maxime de Roucy, Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michael Hoy,
        Michael Olbrich, Michael Pope, Michal Sekletar, Michal Soltys, Mike
        Gilbert, Nick Owens, Patrik Flykt, Paweł Szewczyk, Peter Hutterer,
        Piotr Drąg, Reid Price, Richard W.M. Jones, Roman Stingler, Ronny
        Chevalier, Seraphime Kirkovski, Stefan Schweter, Steve Muir, Susant
        Sahani, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tiago Levit,
        Tobias Jungel, Tomáš Janoušek, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Umut
        Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito Caputo, WaLyong Cho, Wilhelm Schuster, Yann
        E. MORIN, Yi EungJun, Yuki Inoguchi, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeal Jagannatha

        — Santa Fe, 2016-11-03

CHANGES WITH 231:

        * In service units the various ExecXYZ= settings have been extended
          with an additional special character as first argument of the
          assigned value: if the character '+' is used the specified command
          line it will be run with full privileges, regardless of User=,
          Group=, CapabilityBoundingSet= and similar options. The effect is
          similar to the existing PermissionsStartOnly= option, but allows
          configuration of this concept for each executed command line
          independently.

        * Services may now alter the service watchdog timeout at runtime by
          sending a WATCHDOG_USEC= message via sd_notify().

        * MemoryLimit= and related unit settings now optionally take percentage
          specifications. The percentage is taken relative to the amount of
          physical memory in the system (or in case of containers, the assigned
          amount of memory). This allows scaling service resources neatly with
          the amount of RAM available on the system. Similarly, systemd-logind's
          RuntimeDirectorySize= option now also optionally takes percentage
          values.

        * In similar fashion TasksMax= takes percentage values now, too. The
          value is taken relative to the configured maximum number of processes
          on the system. The per-service task maximum has been changed to 15%
          using this functionality. (Effectively this is an increase of 512 →
          4915 for service units, given the kernel's default pid_max setting.)

        * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now understand a ".."
          syntax for time ranges. Example: "4..7:10" may now be used for
          defining a timer that is triggered at 4:10am, 5:10am, 6:10am and
          7:10am every day.

        * The InaccessableDirectories=, ReadOnlyDirectories= and
          ReadWriteDirectories= unit file settings have been renamed to
          InaccessablePaths=, ReadOnlyPaths= and ReadWritePaths= and may now be
          applied to all kinds of file nodes, and not just directories, with
          the exception of symlinks. Specifically these settings may now be
          used on block and character device nodes, UNIX sockets and FIFOS as
          well as regular files. The old names of these settings remain
          available for compatibility.

        * systemd will now log about all service processes it kills forcibly
          (using SIGKILL) because they remained after the clean shutdown phase
          of the service completed. This should help identifying services that
          shut down uncleanly. Moreover if KillUserProcesses= is enabled in
          systemd-logind's configuration a similar log message is generated for
          processes killed at the end of each session due to this setting.

        * systemd will now set the $JOURNAL_STREAM environment variable for all
          services whose stdout/stderr are connected to the Journal (which
          effectively means by default: all services). The variable contains
          the device and inode number of the file descriptor used for
          stdout/stderr. This may be used by invoked programs to detect whether
          their stdout/stderr is connected to the Journal, in which case they
          can switch over to direct Journal communication, thus being able to
          pass extended, structured metadata along with their log messages. As
          one example, this is now used by glib's logging primitives.

        * When using systemd's default tmp.mount unit for /tmp, the mount point
          will now be established with the "nosuid" and "nodev" options. This
          avoids privilege escalation attacks that put traps and exploits into
          /tmp.  However, this might cause problems if you e. g. put container
          images or overlays into /tmp; if you need this, override tmp.mount's
          "Options=" with a drop-in, or mount /tmp from /etc/fstab with your
          desired options.

        * systemd now supports the "memory" cgroup controller also on
          cgroupsv2.

        * The systemd-cgtop tool now optionally takes a control group path as
          command line argument. If specified, the control group list shown is
          limited to subgroups of that group.

        * The SystemCallFilter= unit file setting gained support for
          pre-defined, named system call filter sets. For example
          SystemCallFilter=@clock is now an effective way to make all clock
          changing-related system calls unavailable to a service. A number of
          similar pre-defined groups are defined. Writing system call filters
          for system services is simplified substantially with this new
          concept. Accordingly, all of systemd's own, long-running services now
          enable system call filtering based on this, by default.

        * A new service setting MemoryDenyWriteExecute= has been added, taking
          a boolean value. If turned on, a service may no longer create memory
          mappings that are writable and executable at the same time. This
          enhances security for services where this is enabled as it becomes
          harder to dynamically write and then execute memory in exploited
          service processes. This option has been enabled for all of systemd's
          own long-running services.

        * A new RestrictRealtime= service setting has been added, taking a
          boolean argument. If set the service's processes may no longer
          acquire realtime scheduling. This improves security as realtime
          scheduling may otherwise be used to easily freeze the system.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new switch --notify-ready= taking a boolean
          value. This may be used for requesting that the system manager inside
          of the container reports start-up completion to nspawn which then
          propagates this notification further to the service manager
          supervising nspawn itself. A related option NotifyReady= in .nspawn
          files has been added too. This functionality allows ordering of the
          start-up of multiple containers using the usual systemd ordering
          primitives.

        * machinectl gained a new command "stop" that is an alias for
          "terminate".

        * systemd-resolved gained support for contacting DNS servers on
          link-local IPv6 addresses.

        * If systemd-resolved receives the SIGUSR2 signal it will now flush all
          its caches. A method call for requesting the same operation has been
          added to the bus API too, and is made available via "systemd-resolve
          --flush-caches".

        * systemd-resolve gained a new --status switch. If passed a brief
          summary of the used DNS configuration with per-interface information
          is shown.

        * resolved.conf gained a new Cache= boolean option, defaulting to
          on. If turned off local DNS caching is disabled. This comes with a
          performance penalty in particular when DNSSEC is enabled. Note that
          resolved disables its internal caching implicitly anyway, when the
          configured DNS server is on a host-local IP address such as ::1 or
          127.0.0.1, thus automatically avoiding double local caching.

        * systemd-resolved now listens on the local IP address 127.0.0.53:53
          for DNS requests. This improves compatibility with local programs
          that do not use the libc NSS or systemd-resolved's bus APIs for name
          resolution. This minimal DNS service is only available to local
          programs and does not implement the full DNS protocol, but enough to
          cover local DNS clients. A new, static resolv.conf file, listing just
          this DNS server is now shipped in /usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf. It is
          now recommended to make /etc/resolv.conf a symlink to this file in
          order to route all DNS lookups to systemd-resolved, regardless if
          done via NSS, the bus API or raw DNS packets. Note that this local
          DNS service is not as fully featured as the libc NSS or
          systemd-resolved's bus APIs. For example, as unicast DNS cannot be
          used to deliver link-local address information (as this implies
          sending a local interface index along), LLMNR/mDNS support via this
          interface is severely restricted. It is thus strongly recommended for
          all applications to use the libc NSS API or native systemd-resolved
          bus API instead.

        * systemd-networkd's bridge support learned a new setting
          VLANFiltering= for controlling VLAN filtering. Moreover a new section
          in .network files has been added for configuring VLAN bridging in
          more detail: VLAN=, EgressUntagged=, PVID= in [BridgeVLAN].

        * systemd-networkd's IPv6 Router Advertisement code now makes use of
          the DNSSL and RDNSS options. This means IPv6 DNS configuration may
          now be acquired without relying on DHCPv6. Two new options
          UseDomains= and UseDNS= have been added to configure this behaviour.

        * systemd-networkd's IPv6AcceptRouterAdvertisements= option has been
          renamed IPv6AcceptRA=, without altering its behaviour. The old
          setting name remains available for compatibility reasons.

        * The systemd-networkd VTI/VTI6 tunneling support gained new options
          Key=, InputKey= and OutputKey=.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for VRF ("Virtual Routing Function")
          interface configuration.

        * "systemctl edit" may now be used to create new unit files by
          specifying the --force switch.

        * sd-event gained a new function sd_event_get_iteration() for
          requesting the current iteration counter of the event loop. It starts
          at zero and is increased by one with each event loop iteration.

        * A new rpm macro %systemd_ordering is provided by the macros.systemd
          file. It can be used in lieu of %systemd_requires in packages which
          don't use any systemd functionality and are intended to be installed
          in minimal containers without systemd present. This macro provides
          ordering dependencies to ensure that if the package is installed in
          the same rpm transaction as systemd, systemd will be installed before
          the scriptlets for the package are executed, allowing unit presets
          to be handled.

          New macros %_systemdgeneratordir and %_systemdusergeneratordir have
          been added to simplify packaging of generators.

        * The os-release file gained VERSION_CODENAME field for the
          distribution nickname (e.g. VERSION_CODENAME=woody).

        * New udev property UDEV_DISABLE_PERSISTENT_STORAGE_RULES_FLAG=1
          can be set to disable parsing of metadata and the creation
          of persistent symlinks for that device.

        * The v230 change to tag framebuffer devices (/dev/fb*) with "uaccess"
          to make them available to logged-in users has been reverted.

        * Much of the common code of the various systemd components is now
          built into an internal shared library libsystemd-shared-231.so
          (incorporating the systemd version number in the name, to be updated
          with future releases) that the components link to. This should
          decrease systemd footprint both in memory during runtime and on
          disk. Note that the shared library is not for public use, and is
          neither API nor ABI stable, but is likely to change with every new
          released update. Packagers need to make sure that binaries
          linking to libsystemd-shared.so are updated in step with the
          library.

        * Configuration for "mkosi" is now part of the systemd
          repository. mkosi is a tool to easily build legacy-free OS images,
          and is available on github: https://github.com/systemd/mkosi. If
          "mkosi" is invoked in the build tree a new raw OS image is generated
          incorporating the systemd sources currently being worked on and a
          clean, fresh distribution installation. The generated OS image may be
          booted up with "systemd-nspawn -b -i", qemu-kvm or on any physical
          UEFI PC. This functionality is particularly useful to easily test
          local changes made to systemd in a pristine, defined environment. See
          doc/HACKING for details.

        * configure learned the --with-support-url= option to specify the
          distribution's bugtracker.

        Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alessandro Puccetti, Alessio Igor
        Bogani, Alexander Kuleshov, Alexander Kurtz, Alex Gaynor, Andika
        Triwidada, Andreas Pokorny, Andreas Rammhold, Andrew Jeddeloh, Ansgar
        Burchardt, Atrotors, Benjamin Drung, Brian Boylston, Christian Hesse,
        Christian Rebischke, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David
        Herrmann, David Michael, Djalal Harouni, Douglas Christman, Elias
        Probst, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Federico Mena Quintero, Felipe Sateler,
        Franck Bui, Harald Hoyer, Ian Lee, Ivan Shapovalov, Jakub Wilk, Jan
        Janssen, Jean-Sébastien Bour, John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jouke
        Witteveen, Kai Ruhnau, kpengboy, Kyle Walker, Lénaïc Huard, Lennart
        Poettering, Luca Bruno, Lukas Lösche, Lukáš Nykrýn, mahkoh, Marcel
        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Marty Plummer, Matthieu Codron, Max Prokhorov,
        Michael Biebl, Michael Karcher, Michael Olbrich, Michał Bartoszkiewicz,
        Michal Sekletar, Michal Soltys, Minkyung, Muhammet Kara, mulkieran,
        Otto Wallenius, Pablo Lezaeta Reyes, Peter Hutterer, Ronny Chevalier,
        Rusty Bird, Stef Walter, Susant Sahani, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas
        Haller, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tobias Jungel, Tom Gundersen, Tom Yan,
        Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Valentin Vidić, Viktar Vaŭčkievič,
        WaLyong Cho, Weng Xuetian, Werner Fink, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2016-07-25

CHANGES WITH 230:

        * DNSSEC is now turned on by default in systemd-resolved (in
          "allow-downgrade" mode), but may be turned off during compile time by
          passing "--with-default-dnssec=no" to "configure" (and of course,
          during runtime with DNSSEC= in resolved.conf). We recommend
          downstreams to leave this on at least during development cycles and
          report any issues with the DNSSEC logic upstream. We are very
          interested in collecting feedback about the DNSSEC validator and its
          limitations in the wild. Note however, that DNSSEC support is
          probably nothing downstreams should turn on in stable distros just
          yet, as it might create incompatibilities with a few DNS servers and
          networks. We tried hard to make sure we downgrade to non-DNSSEC mode
          automatically whenever we detect such incompatible setups, but there
          might be systems we do not cover yet. Hence: please help us testing
          the DNSSEC code, leave this on where you can, report back, but then
          again don't consider turning this on in your stable, LTS or
          production release just yet. (Note that you have to enable
          nss-resolve in /etc/nsswitch.conf, to actually use systemd-resolved
          and its DNSSEC mode for host name resolution from local
          applications.)

        * systemd-resolve conveniently resolves DANE records with the --tlsa
          option and OPENPGPKEY records with the --openpgp option. It also
          supports dumping raw DNS record data via the new --raw= switch.

        * systemd-logind will now by default terminate user processes that are
          part of the user session scope unit (session-XX.scope) when the user
          logs out. This behavior is controlled by the KillUserProcesses=
          setting in logind.conf, and the previous default of "no" is now
          changed to "yes". This means that user sessions will be properly
          cleaned up after, but additional steps are necessary to allow
          intentionally long-running processes to survive logout.

          While the user is logged in at least once, user@.service is running,
          and any service that should survive the end of any individual login
          session can be started at a user service or scope using systemd-run.
          systemd-run(1) man page has been extended with an example which shows
          how to run screen in a scope unit underneath user@.service. The same
          command works for tmux.

          After the user logs out of all sessions, user@.service will be
          terminated too, by default, unless the user has "lingering" enabled.
          To effectively allow users to run long-term tasks even if they are
          logged out, lingering must be enabled for them. See loginctl(1) for
          details. The default polkit policy was modified to allow users to
          set lingering for themselves without authentication.

          Previous defaults can be restored at compile time by the
          --without-kill-user-processes option to "configure".

        * systemd-logind gained new configuration settings SessionsMax= and
          InhibitorsMax=, both with a default of 8192. It will not register new
          user sessions or inhibitors above this limit.

        * systemd-logind will now reload configuration on SIGHUP.

        * The unified cgroup hierarchy added in Linux 4.5 is now supported.
          Use systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1 on the kernel command line to
          enable. Also, support for the "io" cgroup controller in the unified
          hierarchy has been added, so that the "memory", "pids" and "io" are
          now the controllers that are supported on the unified hierarchy.

          WARNING: it is not possible to use previous systemd versions with
          systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1 and the new kernel. Therefore it
          is necessary to also update systemd in the initramfs if using the
          unified hierarchy. An updated SELinux policy is also required.

        * LLDP support has been extended, and both passive (receive-only) and
          active (sender) modes are supported. Passive mode ("routers-only") is
          enabled by default in systemd-networkd. Active LLDP mode is enabled
          by default for containers on the internal network. The "networkctl
          lldp" command may be used to list information gathered. "networkctl
          status" will also show basic LLDP information on connected peers now.

        * The IAID and DUID unique identifier sent in DHCP requests may now be
          configured for the system and each .network file managed by
          systemd-networkd using the DUIDType=, DUIDRawData=, IAID= options.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring proxy ARP support for
          each interface, via the ProxyArp= setting in .network files. It also
          gained support for configuring the multicast querier feature of
          bridge devices, via the new MulticastQuerier= setting in .netdev
          files. Similarly, snooping on the IGMP traffic can be controlled
          via the new setting MulticastSnooping=.

          A new setting PreferredLifetime= has been added for addresses
          configured in .network file to configure the lifetime intended for an
          address.

          The systemd-networkd DHCP server gained the option EmitRouter=, which
          defaults to yes, to configure whether the DHCP Option 3 (Router)
          should be emitted.

        * The testing tool /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-activate is renamed to
          systemd-socket-activate and installed into /usr/bin. It is now fully
          supported.

        * systemd-journald now uses separate threads to flush changes to disk
          when closing journal files, thus reducing impact of slow disk I/O on
          logging performance.

        * The sd-journal API gained two new calls
          sd_journal_open_directory_fd() and sd_journal_open_files_fd() which
          can be used to open journal files using file descriptors instead of
          file or directory paths. sd_journal_open_container() has been
          deprecated, sd_journal_open_directory_fd() should be used instead
          with the flag SD_JOURNAL_OS_ROOT.

        * journalctl learned a new output mode "-o short-unix" that outputs log
          lines prefixed by their UNIX time (i.e. seconds since Jan 1st, 1970
          UTC). It also gained support for a new --no-hostname setting to
          suppress the hostname column in the family of "short" output modes.

        * systemd-ask-password now optionally skips printing of the password to
          stdout with --no-output which can be useful in scripts.

        * Framebuffer devices (/dev/fb*) and 3D printers and scanners
          (devices tagged with ID_MAKER_TOOL) are now tagged with
          "uaccess" and are available to logged in users.

        * The DeviceAllow= unit setting now supports specifiers (with "%").

        * "systemctl show" gained a new --value switch, which allows print a
          only the contents of a specific unit property, without also printing
          the property's name. Similar support was added to "show*" verbs
          of loginctl and machinectl that output "key=value" lists.

        * A new unit type "generated" was added for files dynamically generated
          by generator tools. Similarly, a new unit type "transient" is used
          for unit files created using the runtime API. "systemctl enable" will
          refuse to operate on such files.

        * A new command "systemctl revert" has been added that may be used to
          revert to the vendor version of a unit file, in case local changes
          have been made by adding drop-ins or overriding the unit file.

        * "machinectl clean" gained a new verb to automatically remove all or
          just hidden container images.

        * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for a new line type "e" for emptying
          directories, if they exist, without creating them if they don't.

        * systemd-nspawn gained support for automatically patching the UID/GIDs
          of the owners and the ACLs of all files and directories in a
          container tree to match the UID/GID user namespacing range selected
          for the container invocation. This mode is enabled via the new
          --private-users-chown switch. It also gained support for
          automatically choosing a free, previously unused UID/GID range when
          starting a container, via the new --private-users=pick setting (which
          implies --private-users-chown). Together, these options for the first
          time make user namespacing for nspawn containers fully automatic and
          thus deployable. The systemd-nspawn@.service template unit file has
          been changed to use this functionality by default.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-zone= switch, that allows
          creating ad-hoc virtual Ethernet links between multiple containers,
          that only exist as long as at least one container referencing them is
          running. This allows easy connecting of multiple containers with a
          common link that implements an Ethernet broadcast domain. Each of
          these network "zones" may be named relatively freely by the user, and
          may be referenced by any number of containers, but each container may
          only reference one of these "zones". On the lower level, this is
          implemented by an automatically managed bridge network interface for
          each zone, that is created when the first container referencing its
          zone is created and removed when the last one referencing its zone
          terminates.

        * The default start timeout may now be configured on the kernel command
          line via systemd.default_timeout_start_sec=. It was already
          configurable via the DefaultTimeoutStartSec= option in
          /etc/systemd/system.conf.

        * Socket units gained a new TriggerLimitIntervalSec= and
          TriggerLimitBurst= setting to configure a limit on the activation
          rate of the socket unit.

        * The LimitNICE= setting now optionally takes normal UNIX nice values
          in addition to the raw integer limit value. If the specified
          parameter is prefixed with "+" or "-" and is in the range -20..19 the
          value is understood as UNIX nice value. If not prefixed like this it
          is understood as raw RLIMIT_NICE limit.

        * Note that the effect of the PrivateDevices= unit file setting changed
          slightly with this release: the per-device /dev file system will be
          mounted read-only from this version on, and will have "noexec"
          set. This (minor) change of behavior might cause some (exceptional)
          legacy software to break, when PrivateDevices=yes is set for its
          service. Please leave PrivateDevices= off if you run into problems
          with this.

        * systemd-bootchart has been split out to a separate repository:
          https://github.com/systemd/systemd-bootchart

        * systemd-bus-proxyd has been removed, as kdbus is unlikely to still be
          merged into the kernel in its current form.

        * The compatibility libraries libsystemd-daemon.so,
          libsystemd-journal.so, libsystemd-id128.so, and libsystemd-login.so
          which have been deprecated since systemd-209 have been removed along
          with the corresponding pkg-config files. All symbols provided by
          those libraries are provided by libsystemd.so.

        * The Capabilities= unit file setting has been removed (it is ignored
          for backwards compatibility). AmbientCapabilities= and
          CapabilityBoundingSet= should be used instead.

        * A new special target has been added, initrd-root-device.target,
          which creates a synchronization point for dependencies of the root
          device in early userspace. Initramfs builders must ensure that this
          target is now included in early userspace.

        Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alexander Kuleshov, Alexander Shopov,
        Alex Crawford, Andre Klärner, Andrew Eikum, Beniamino Galvani, Benjamin
        Robin, Biao Lu, Bjørnar Ness, Calvin Owens, Christian Hesse, Clemens
        Gruber, Colin Guthrie, Daniel Drake, Daniele Medri, Daniel J Walsh,
        Daniel Mack, Dan Nicholson, daurnimator, David Herrmann, David
        R. Hedges, Elias Probst, Emmanuel Gil Peyrot, EMOziko, Evgeny
        Vereshchagin, Federico, Felipe Sateler, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck
        Bui, frankheckenbach, gdamjan, Georgia Brikis, Harald Hoyer, Hendrik
        Brueckner, Hristo Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Ian Kelling, Ismo
        Puustinen, Jakub Wilk, Jaroslav Škarvada, Jeff Huang, Joel Holdsworth,
        John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jonathan Boulle, kayrus, Klearchos
        Chaloulos, Kyle Russell, Lars Uebernickel, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir
        Rintel, Lukáš Nykrýn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt,
        Michael Biebl, michaelolbrich, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Michal Koutný,
        Michal Sekletar, Mike Frysinger, Mike Gilbert, Mingcong Bai, Ming Lin,
        mulkieran, muzena, Nalin Dahyabhai, Naohiro Aota, Nathan McSween,
        Nicolas Braud-Santoni, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer, Peter Mattern,
        Petr Lautrbach, Petros Angelatos, Piotr Drąg, Rabin Vincent, Robert
        Węcławski, Ronny Chevalier, Samuel Tardieu, Stefan Saraev, Stefan
        Schallenberg aka nafets227, Steven Siloti, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
        Plantefève, Taylor Smock, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller,
        Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tobias Klauser, Tom Gundersen, topimiettinen,
        Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Uwe Kleine-König, Victor Toso,
        Vinay Kulkarni, Vito Caputo, Vittorio G (VittGam), Vladimir Panteleev,
        Wieland Hoffmann, Wouter Verhelst, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Fairfax, 2016-05-21

CHANGES WITH 229:

        * The systemd-resolved DNS resolver service has gained a substantial
          set of new features, most prominently it may now act as a DNSSEC
          validating stub resolver. DNSSEC mode is currently turned off by
          default, but is expected to be turned on by default in one of the
          next releases. For now, we invite everybody to test the DNSSEC logic
          by setting DNSSEC=allow-downgrade in /etc/systemd/resolved.conf. The
          service also gained a full set of D-Bus interfaces, including calls
          to configure DNS and DNSSEC settings per link (for use by external
          network management software). systemd-resolved and systemd-networkd
          now distinguish between "search" and "routing" domains. The former
          are used to qualify single-label names, the latter are used purely
          for routing lookups within certain domains to specific links.
          resolved now also synthesizes RRs for all entries from /etc/hosts.

        * The systemd-resolve tool (which is a client utility for
          systemd-resolved) has been improved considerably and is now fully
          supported and documented. Hence it has moved from /usr/lib/systemd to
          /usr/bin.

        * /dev/disk/by-path/ symlink support has been (re-)added for virtio
          devices.

        * The coredump collection logic has been reworked: when a coredump is
          collected it is now written to disk, compressed and processed
          (including stacktrace extraction) from a new instantiated service
          systemd-coredump@.service, instead of directly from the
          /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern hook we provide. This is beneficial as
          processing large coredumps can take up a substantial amount of
          resources and time, and this previously happened entirely outside of
          systemd's service supervision. With the new logic the core_pattern
          hook only does minimal metadata collection before passing off control
          to the new instantiated service, which is configured with a time
          limit, a nice level and other settings to minimize negative impact on
          the rest of the system. Also note that the new logic will honour the
          RLIMIT_CORE setting of the crashed process, which now allows users
          and processes to turn off coredumping for their processes by setting
          this limit.

        * The RLIMIT_CORE resource limit now defaults to "unlimited" for PID 1
          and all forked processes by default. Previously, PID 1 would leave
          the setting at "0" for all processes, as set by the kernel. Note that
          the resource limit traditionally has no effect on the generated
          coredumps on the system if the /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern hook
          logic is used. Since the limit is now honoured (see above) its
          default has been changed so that the coredumping logic is enabled by
          default for all processes, while allowing specific opt-out.

        * When the stacktrace is extracted from processes of system users, this
          is now done as "systemd-coredump" user, in order to sandbox this
          potentially security sensitive parsing operation. (Note that when
          processing coredumps of normal users this is done under the user ID
          of process that crashed, as before.) Packagers should take notice
          that it is now necessary to create the "systemd-coredump" system user
          and group at package installation time.

        * The systemd-activate socket activation testing tool gained support
          for SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_SEQPACKET sockets using the new --datagram
          and --seqpacket switches. It also has been extended to support both
          new-style and inetd-style file descriptor passing. Use the new
          --inetd switch to request inetd-style file descriptor passing.

        * Most systemd tools now honor a new $SYSTEMD_COLORS environment
          variable, which takes a boolean value. If set to false, ANSI color
          output is disabled in the tools even when run on a terminal that
          supports it.

        * The VXLAN support in networkd now supports two new settings
          DestinationPort= and PortRange=.

        * A new systemd.machine_id= kernel command line switch has been added,
          that may be used to set the machine ID in /etc/machine-id if it is
          not initialized yet. This command line option has no effect if the
          file is already initialized.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --as-pid2 switch that invokes any
          specified command line as PID 2 rather than PID 1 in the
          container. In this mode PID 1 is a minimal stub init process that
          implements the special POSIX and Linux semantics of PID 1 regarding
          signal and child process management. Note that this stub init process
          is implemented in nspawn itself and requires no support from the
          container image. This new logic is useful to support running
          arbitrary commands in the container, as normal processes are
          generally not prepared to run as PID 1.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --chdir= switch for setting the current
          working directory for the process started in the container.

        * "journalctl /dev/sda" will now output all kernel log messages for
          specified device from the current boot, in addition to all devices
          that are parents of it. This should make log output about devices
          pretty useful, as long as kernel drivers attach enough metadata to
          the log messages. (The usual SATA drivers do.)

        * The sd-journal API gained two new calls
          sd_journal_has_runtime_files() and sd_journal_has_persistent_files()
          that report whether log data from /run or /var has been found.

        * journalctl gained a new switch "--fields" that prints all journal
          record field names currently in use in the journal.  This is backed
          by two new sd-journal API calls sd_journal_enumerate_fields() and
          sd_journal_restart_fields().

        * Most configurable timeouts in systemd now expect an argument of
          "infinity" to turn them off, instead of "0" as before. The semantics
          from now on is that a timeout of "0" means "now", and "infinity"
          means "never". To maintain backwards compatibility, "0" continues to
          turn off previously existing timeout settings.

        * "systemctl reload-or-try-restart" has been renamed to "systemctl
          try-reload-or-restart" to clarify what it actually does: the "try"
          logic applies to both reloading and restarting, not just restarting.
          The old name continues to be accepted for compatibility.

        * On boot-up, when PID 1 detects that the system clock is behind the
          release date of the systemd version in use, the clock is now set
          to the latter. Previously, this was already done in timesyncd, in order
          to avoid running with clocks set to the various clock epochs such as
          1902, 1938 or 1970. With this change the logic is now done in PID 1
          in addition to timesyncd during early boot-up, so that it is enforced
          before the first process is spawned by systemd. Note that the logic
          in timesyncd remains, as it is more comprehensive and ensures
          clock monotonicity by maintaining a persistent timestamp file in
          /var. Since /var is generally not available in earliest boot or the
          initrd, this part of the logic remains in timesyncd, and is not done
          by PID 1.

        * Support for tweaking details in net_cls.class_id through the
          NetClass= configuration directive has been removed, as the kernel
          people have decided to deprecate that controller in cgroup v2.
          Userspace tools such as nftables are moving over to setting rules
          that are specific to the full cgroup path of a task, which obsoletes
          these controllers anyway. The NetClass= directive is kept around for
          legacy compatibility reasons. For a more in-depth description of the
          kernel change, please refer to the respective upstream commit:

            https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=bd1060a1d671

        * A new service setting RuntimeMaxSec= has been added that may be used
          to specify a maximum runtime for a service. If the timeout is hit, the
          service is terminated and put into a failure state.

        * A new service setting AmbientCapabilities= has been added. It allows
          configuration of additional Linux process capabilities that are
          passed to the activated processes. This is only available on very
          recent kernels.

        * The process resource limit settings in service units may now be used
          to configure hard and soft limits individually.

        * The various libsystemd APIs such as sd-bus or sd-event now publicly
          expose support for gcc's __attribute__((cleanup())) C extension.
          Specifically, for many object destructor functions alternative
          versions have been added that have names suffixed with "p" and take a
          pointer to a pointer to the object to destroy, instead of just a
          pointer to the object itself. This is useful because these destructor
          functions may be used directly as parameters to the cleanup
          construct. Internally, systemd has been a heavy user of this GCC
          extension for a long time, and with this change similar support is
          now available to consumers of the library outside of systemd. Note
          that by using this extension in your sources compatibility with old
          and strictly ANSI compatible C compilers is lost. However, all gcc or
          LLVM versions of recent years support this extension.

        * Timer units gained support for a new setting RandomizedDelaySec= that
          allows configuring some additional randomized delay to the configured
          time. This is useful to spread out timer events to avoid load peaks in
          clusters or larger setups.

        * Calendar time specifications now support sub-second accuracy.

        * Socket units now support listening on SCTP and UDP-lite protocol
          sockets.

        * The sd-event API now comes with a full set of man pages.

        * Older versions of systemd contained experimental support for
          compressing journal files and coredumps with the LZ4 compressor that
          was not compatible with the lz4 binary (due to API limitations of the
          lz4 library). This support has been removed; only support for files
          compatible with the lz4 binary remains. This LZ4 logic is now
          officially supported and no longer considered experimental.

        * The dkr image import logic has been removed again from importd. dkr's
          micro-services focus doesn't fit into the machine image focus of
          importd, and quickly got out of date with the upstream dkr API.

        * Creation of the /run/lock/lockdev/ directory was dropped from
          tmpfiles.d/legacy.conf. Better locking mechanisms like flock() have
          been available for many years. If you still need this, you need to
          create your own tmpfiles.d config file with:

                  d /run/lock/lockdev 0775 root lock -

        * The settings StartLimitBurst=, StartLimitInterval=, StartLimitAction=
          and RebootArgument= have been moved from the [Service] section of
          unit files to [Unit], and they are now supported on all unit types,
          not just service units. Of course, elogind will continue to
          understand these settings also at the old location, in order to
          maintain compatibility.

        Contributions from: Abdo Roig-Maranges, Alban Crequy, Aleksander
        Adamowski, Alexander Kuleshov, Andreas Pokorny, Andrei Borzenkov,
        Andrew Wilcox, Arthur Clement, Beniamino Galvani, Casey Schaufler,
        Chris Atkinson, Chris Mayo, Christian Hesse, Damjan Georgievski, Dan
        Dedrick, Daniele Medri, Daniel J Walsh, Daniel Korostil, Daniel Mack,
        David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Dominik Hannen, Douglas Christman,
        Evgeny Vereshchagin, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Gabor Kelemen,
        Harald Hoyer, Hayden Walles, Helmut Grohne, Henrik Kaare Poulsen,
        Hristo Venev, Hui Wang, Indrajit Raychaudhuri, Ismo Puustinen, Jakub
        Wilk, Jan Alexander Steffens (heftig), Jan Engelhardt, Jan Synacek,
        Joost Bremmer, Jorgen Schaefer, Karel Zak, Klearchos Chaloulos,
        lc85446, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Scherer,
        Michał Górny, Michal Sekletar, Nicolas Cornu, Nicolas Iooss, Nils
        Carlson, nmartensen, nnz1024, Patrick Ohly, Peter Hutterer, Phillip Sz,
        Ronny Chevalier, Samu Kallio, Shawn Landden, Stef Walter, Susant
        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Tadej Janež, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito
        Caputo, WaLyong Cho, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2016-02-11

CHANGES WITH 228:

        * A number of properties previously only settable in unit
          files are now also available as properties to set when
          creating transient units programmatically via the bus, as it
          is exposed with systemd-run's --property=
          setting. Specifically, these are: SyslogIdentifier=,
          SyslogLevelPrefix=, TimerSlackNSec=, OOMScoreAdjust=,
          EnvironmentFile=, ReadWriteDirectories=,
          ReadOnlyDirectories=, InaccessibleDirectories=,
          ProtectSystem=, ProtectHome=, RuntimeDirectory=.

        * When creating transient services via the bus API it is now
          possible to pass in a set of file descriptors to use as
          STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR for the invoked process.

        * Slice units may now be created transiently via the bus APIs,
          similar to the way service and scope units may already be
          created transiently.

        * Wherever systemd expects a calendar timestamp specification
          (like in journalctl's --since= and --until= switches) UTC
          timestamps are now supported. Timestamps suffixed with "UTC"
          are now considered to be in Universal Time Coordinated
          instead of the local timezone. Also, timestamps may now
          optionally be specified with sub-second accuracy. Both of
          these additions also apply to recurring calendar event
          specification, such as OnCalendar= in timer units.

        * journalctl gained a new "--sync" switch that asks the
          journal daemon to write all so far unwritten log messages to
          disk and sync the files, before returning.

        * systemd-tmpfiles learned two new line types "q" and "Q" that
          operate like "v", but also set up a basic btrfs quota
          hierarchy when used on a btrfs file system with quota
          enabled.

        * tmpfiles' "v", "q" and "Q" will now create a plain directory
          instead of a subvolume (even on a btrfs file system) if the
          root directory is a plain directory, and not a
          subvolume. This should simplify things with certain chroot()
          environments which are not aware of the concept of btrfs
          subvolumes.

        * systemd-detect-virt gained a new --chroot switch to detect
          whether execution takes place in a chroot() environment.

        * CPUAffinity= now takes CPU index ranges in addition to
          individual indexes.

        * The various memory-related resource limit settings (such as
          LimitAS=) now understand the usual K, M, G, ... suffixes to
          the base of 1024 (IEC). Similar, the time-related resource
          limit settings understand the usual min, h, day, ...
          suffixes now.

        * There's a new system.conf setting DefaultTasksMax= to
          control the default TasksMax= setting for services and
          scopes running on the system. (TasksMax= is the primary
          setting that exposes the "pids" cgroup controller on systemd
          and was introduced in the previous systemd release.) The
          setting now defaults to 512, which means services that are
          not explicitly configured otherwise will only be able to
          create 512 processes or threads at maximum, from this
          version on. Note that this means that thread- or
          process-heavy services might need to be reconfigured to set
          TasksMax= to a higher value. It is sufficient to set
          TasksMax= in these specific unit files to a higher value, or
          even "infinity". Similar, there's now a logind.conf setting
          UserTasksMax= that defaults to 4096 and limits the total
          number of processes or tasks each user may own
          concurrently. nspawn containers also have the TasksMax=
          value set by default now, to 8192. Note that all of this
          only has an effect if the "pids" cgroup controller is
          enabled in the kernel. The general benefit of these changes
          should be a more robust and safer system, that provides a
          certain amount of per-service fork() bomb protection.

        * systemd-nspawn gained the new --network-veth-extra= switch
          to define additional and arbitrarily-named virtual Ethernet
          links between the host and the container.

        * A new service execution setting PassEnvironment= has been
          added that allows importing select environment variables
          from PID1's environment block into the environment block of
          the service.

        * Timer units gained support for a new RemainAfterElapse=
          setting which takes a boolean argument. It defaults to on,
          exposing behaviour unchanged to previous releases. If set to
          off, timer units are unloaded after they elapsed if they
          cannot elapse again. This is particularly useful for
          transient timer units, which shall not stay around longer
          than until they first elapse.

        * systemd will now bump the net.unix.max_dgram_qlen to 512 by
          default now (the kernel default is 16). This is beneficial
          for avoiding blocking on AF_UNIX/SOCK_DGRAM sockets since it
          allows substantially larger numbers of queued
          datagrams. This should increase the capability of systemd to
          parallelize boot-up, as logging and sd_notify() are unlikely
          to stall execution anymore. If you need to change the value
          from the new defaults, use the usual sysctl.d/ snippets.

        * The compression framing format used by the journal or
          coredump processing has changed to be in line with what the
          official LZ4 tools generate. LZ4 compression support in
          systemd was considered unsupported previously, as the format
          was not compatible with the normal tools. With this release
          this has changed now, and it is hence safe for downstream
          distributions to turn it on. While not compressing as well
          as the XZ, LZ4 is substantially faster, which makes
          it a good default choice for the compression logic in the
          journal and in coredump handling.

        * Any reference to /etc/mtab has been dropped from
          systemd. The file has been obsolete since a while, but
          systemd refused to work on systems where it was incorrectly
          set up (it should be a symlink or non-existent). Please make
          sure to update to util-linux 2.27.1 or newer in conjunction
          with this systemd release, which also drops any reference to
          /etc/mtab. If you maintain a distribution make sure that no
          software you package still references it, as this is a
          likely source of bugs. There's also a glibc bug pending,
          asking for removal of any reference to this obsolete file:

          https://sourceware.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=19108

          Note that only util-linux versions built with
          --enable-libmount-force-mountinfo are supported.

        * Support for the ".snapshot" unit type has been removed. This
          feature turned out to be little useful and little used, and
          has now been removed from the core and from systemctl.

        * The dependency types RequiresOverridable= and
          RequisiteOverridable= have been removed from systemd. They
          have been used only very sparingly to our knowledge and
          other options that provide a similar effect (such as
          systemctl --mode=ignore-dependencies) are much more useful
          and commonly used. Moreover, they were only half-way
          implemented as the option to control behaviour regarding
          these dependencies was never added to systemctl. By removing
          these dependency types the execution engine becomes a bit
          simpler. Unit files that use these dependencies should be
          changed to use the non-Overridable dependency types
          instead. In fact, when parsing unit files with these
          options, that's what systemd will automatically convert them
          too, but it will also warn, asking users to fix the unit
          files accordingly. Removal of these dependency types should
          only affect a negligible number of unit files in the wild.

        * Behaviour of networkd's IPForward= option changed
          (again). It will no longer maintain a per-interface setting,
          but propagate one way from interfaces where this is enabled
          to the global kernel setting. The global setting will be
          enabled when requested by a network that is set up, but
          never be disabled again. This change was made to make sure
          IPv4 and IPv6 behaviour regarding packet forwarding is
          similar (as the Linux IPv6 stack does not support
          per-interface control of this setting) and to minimize
          surprises.

        * In unit files the behaviour of %u, %U, %h, %s has
          changed. These specifiers will now unconditionally resolve
          to the various user database fields of the user that the
          systemd instance is running as, instead of the user
          configured in the specific unit via User=. Note that this
          effectively doesn't change much, as resolving of these
          specifiers was already turned off in the --system instance
          of systemd, as we cannot do NSS lookups from PID 1. In the
          --user instance of systemd these specifiers where correctly
          resolved, but hardly made any sense, since the user instance
          lacks privileges to do user switches anyway, and User= is
          hence useless. Moreover, even in the --user instance of
          systemd behaviour was awkward as it would only take settings
          from User= assignment placed before the specifier into
          account. In order to unify and simplify the logic around
          this the specifiers will now always resolve to the
          credentials of the user invoking the manager (which in case
          of PID 1 is the root user).

        Contributions from: Andrew Jones, Beniamino Galvani, Boyuan
        Yang, Daniel Machon, Daniel Mack, David Herrmann, David
        Reynolds, David Strauss, Dongsu Park, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
        Felipe Sateler, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Hristo
        Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jan
        Synacek, Jesus Ornelas Aguayo, Karel Zak, kayrus, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Liu Yuan Yuan, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
        Holtmann, Marcin Bachry, Marcos Alano, Marcos Mello, Mark
        Theunissen, Martin Pitt, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich,
        Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mirco Tischler, Nick Owens,
        Nicolas Cornu, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer, reverendhomer,
        Ronny Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Seong-ho Cho, Shawn Landden,
        Susant Sahani, Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
        Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Vito Caputo, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2015-11-18

CHANGES WITH 227:

        * systemd now depends on util-linux v2.27. More specifically,
          the newly added mount monitor feature in libmount now
          replaces systemd's former own implementation.

        * libmount mandates /etc/mtab not to be regular file, and
          systemd now enforces this condition at early boot.
          /etc/mtab has been deprecated and warned about for a very
          long time, so systems running systemd should already have
          stopped having this file around as anything else than a
          symlink to /proc/self/mounts.

        * Support for the "pids" cgroup controller has been added.  It
          allows accounting the number of tasks in a cgroup and
          enforcing limits on it. This adds two new setting
          TasksAccounting= and TasksMax= to each unit, as well as a
          global option DefaultTasksAccounting=.

        * Support for the "net_cls" cgroup controller has been added.
          It allows assigning a net class ID to each task in the
          cgroup, which can then be used in firewall rules and traffic
          shaping configurations. Note that the kernel netfilter net
          class code does not currently work reliably for ingress
          packets on unestablished sockets.

          This adds a new config directive called NetClass= to CGroup
          enabled units. Allowed values are positive numbers for fixed
          assignments and "auto" for picking a free value
          automatically.

        * 'systemctl is-system-running' now returns 'offline' if the
          system is not booted with systemd. This command can now be
          used as a substitute for 'systemd-notify --booted'.

        * Watchdog timeouts have been increased to 3 minutes for all
          in-tree service files. Apparently, disk IO issues are more
          frequent than we hoped, and user reported >1 minute waiting
          for disk IO.

        * 'machine-id-commit' functionality has been merged into
          'machine-id-setup --commit'. The separate binary has been
          removed.

        * The WorkingDirectory= directive in unit files may now be set
          to the special value '~'. In this case, the working
          directory is set to the home directory of the user
          configured in User=.

        * "machinectl shell" will now open the shell in the home
          directory of the selected user by default.

        * The CrashChVT= configuration file setting is renamed to
          CrashChangeVT=, following our usual logic of not
          abbreviating unnecessarily. The old directive is still
          supported for compat reasons. Also, this directive now takes
          an integer value between 1 and 63, or a boolean value. The
          formerly supported '-1' value for disabling stays around for
          compat reasons.

        * The PrivateTmp=, PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork=,
          NoNewPrivileges=, TTYPath=, WorkingDirectory= and
          RootDirectory= properties can now be set for transient
          units.

        * The systemd-analyze tool gained a new "set-log-target" verb
          to change the logging target the system manager logs to
          dynamically during runtime. This is similar to how
          "systemd-analyze set-log-level" already changes the log
          level.

        * In nspawn /sys is now mounted as tmpfs, with only a selected
          set of subdirectories mounted in from the real sysfs. This
          enhances security slightly, and is useful for ensuring user
          namespaces work correctly.

        * Support for USB FunctionFS activation has been added. This
          allows implementation of USB gadget services that are
          activated as soon as they are requested, so that they don't
          have to run continuously, similar to classic socket
          activation.

        * The "systemctl exit" command now optionally takes an
          additional parameter that sets the exit code to return from
          the systemd manager when exiting. This is only relevant when
          running the systemd user instance, or when running the
          system instance in a container.

        * sd-bus gained the new API calls sd_bus_path_encode_many()
          and sd_bus_path_decode_many() that allow easy encoding and
          decoding of multiple identifier strings inside a D-Bus
          object path. Another new call sd_bus_default_flush_close()
          has been added to flush and close per-thread default
          connections.

        * systemd-cgtop gained support for a -M/--machine= switch to
          show the control groups within a certain container only.

        * "systemctl kill" gained support for an optional --fail
          switch. If specified the requested operation will fail of no
          processes have been killed, because the unit had no
          processes attached, or similar.

        * A new systemd.crash_reboot=1 kernel command line option has
          been added that triggers a reboot after crashing. This can
          also be set through CrashReboot= in systemd.conf.

        * The RuntimeDirectory= setting now understands unit
          specifiers like %i or %f.

        * A new (still internal) library API sd-ipv4acd has been added,
          that implements address conflict detection for IPv4. It's
          based on code from sd-ipv4ll, and will be useful for
          detecting DHCP address conflicts.

        * File descriptors passed during socket activation may now be
          named. A new API sd_listen_fds_with_names() is added to
          access the names.  The default names may be overridden,
          either in the .socket file using the FileDescriptorName=
          parameter, or by passing FDNAME= when storing the file
          descriptors using sd_notify().

        * systemd-networkd gained support for:

            - Setting the IPv6 Router Advertisement settings via
              IPv6AcceptRouterAdvertisements= in .network files.

            - Configuring the HelloTimeSec=, MaxAgeSec= and
              ForwardDelaySec= bridge parameters in .netdev files.

            - Configuring PreferredSource= for static routes in
              .network files.

        * The "ask-password" framework used to query for LUKS harddisk
          passwords or SSL passwords during boot gained support for
          caching passwords in the kernel keyring, if it is
          available. This makes sure that the user only has to type in
          a passphrase once if there are multiple objects to unlock
          with the same one. Previously, such password caching was
          available only when Plymouth was used; this moves the
          caching logic into the systemd codebase itself. The
          "systemd-ask-password" utility gained a new --keyname=
          switch to control which kernel keyring key to use for
          caching a password in. This functionality is also useful for
          enabling display managers such as gdm to automatically
          unlock the user's GNOME keyring if its passphrase, the
          user's password and the harddisk password are the same, if
          gdm-autologin is used.

        * When downloading tar or raw images using "machinectl
          pull-tar" or "machinectl pull-raw", a matching ".nspawn"
          file is now also downloaded, if it is available and stored
          next to the image file.

        * Units of type ".socket" gained a new boolean setting
          Writable= which is only useful in conjunction with
          ListenSpecial=. If true, enables opening the specified
          special file in O_RDWR mode rather than O_RDONLY mode.

        * systemd-rfkill has been reworked to become a singleton
          service that is activated through /dev/rfkill on each rfkill
          state change and saves the settings to disk. This way,
          systemd-rfkill is now compatible with devices that exist
          only intermittendly, and even restores state if the previous
          system shutdown was abrupt rather than clean.

        * The journal daemon gained support for vacuuming old journal
          files controlled by the number of files that shall remain,
          in addition to the already existing control by size and by
          date. This is useful as journal interleaving performance
          degrades with too many separate journal files, and allows
          putting an effective limit on them. The new setting defaults
          to 100, but this may be changed by setting SystemMaxFiles=
          and RuntimeMaxFiles= in journald.conf. Also, the
          "journalctl" tool gained the new --vacuum-files= switch to
          manually vacuum journal files to leave only the specified
          number of files in place.

        * udev will now create /dev/disk/by-path links for ATA devices
          on kernels where that is supported.

        * Galician, Serbian, Turkish and Korean translations were added.

        Contributions from: Aaro Koskinen, Alban Crequy, Beniamino
        Galvani, Benjamin Robin, Branislav Blaskovic, Chen-Han Hsiao
        (Stanley), Daniel Buch, Daniel Machon, Daniel Mack, David
        Herrmann, David Milburn, doubleodoug, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
        Felipe Franciosi, Filipe Brandenburger, Fran Dieguez, Gabriel
        de Perthuis, Georg Müller, Hans de Goede, Hendrik Brueckner,
        Ivan Shapovalov, Jacob Keller, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen,
        Jan Synacek, Jens Kuske, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Krzesimir
        Nowak, Krzysztof Kotlenga, Lars Uebernickel, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Łukasz Stelmach, Maciej Wereski,
        Marcel Holtmann, Marius Thesing, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl,
        Michael Gebetsroither, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mike
        Gilbert, Muhammet Kara, nazgul77, Nicolas Cornu, NoXPhasma,
        Olof Johansson, Patrik Flykt, Pawel Szewczyk, reverendhomer,
        Ronny Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Seong-ho Cho, Susant Sahani,
        Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tom Lyon, Viktar Vauchkevich,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Марко М. Костић

        — Berlin, 2015-10-07

CHANGES WITH 226:

        * The DHCP implementation of systemd-networkd gained a set of
          new features:

          - The DHCP server now supports emitting DNS and NTP
            information. It may be enabled and configured via
            EmitDNS=, DNS=, EmitNTP=, and NTP=. If transmission of DNS
            and NTP information is enabled, but no servers are
            configured, the corresponding uplink information (if there
            is any) is propagated.

          - Server and client now support transmission and reception
            of timezone information. It can be configured via the
            newly introduced network options UseTimezone=,
            EmitTimezone=, and Timezone=.  Transmission of timezone
            information is enabled between host and containers by
            default now: the container will change its local timezone
            to what the host has set.

          - Lease timeouts can now be configured via
            MaxLeaseTimeSec= and DefaultLeaseTimeSec=.

          - The DHCP server improved on the stability of
            leases. Clients are more likely to get the same lease
            information back, even if the server loses state.

          - The DHCP server supports two new configuration options to
            control the lease address pool metrics, PoolOffset= and
            PoolSize=.

        * The encapsulation limit of tunnels in systemd-networkd may
          now be configured via 'EncapsulationLimit='. It allows
          modifying the maximum additional levels of encapsulation
          that are permitted to be prepended to a packet.

        * systemd now supports the concept of user buses replacing
          session buses, if used with dbus-1.10 (and enabled via dbus
          --enable-user-session). It previously only supported this on
          kdbus-enabled systems, and this release expands this to
          'dbus-daemon' systems.

        * systemd-networkd now supports predictable interface names
          for virtio devices.

        * systemd now optionally supports the new Linux kernel
          "unified" control group hierarchy. If enabled via the kernel
          command-line option 'systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1',
          systemd will try to mount the unified cgroup hierarchy
          directly on /sys/fs/cgroup. If not enabled, or not
          available, systemd will fall back to the legacy cgroup
          hierarchy setup, as before. Host system and containers can
          mix and match legacy and unified hierarchies as they
          wish. nspawn understands the $UNIFIED_CGROUP_HIERARCHY
          environment variable to individually select the hierarchy to
          use for executed containers. By default, nspawn will use the
          unified hierarchy for the containers if the host uses the
          unified hierarchy, and the legacy hierarchy otherwise.
          Please note that at this point the unified hierarchy is an
          experimental kernel feature and is likely to change in one
          of the next kernel releases.  Therefore, it should not be
          enabled by default in downstream distributions yet. The
          minimum required kernel version for the unified hierarchy to
          work is 4.2. Note that when the unified hierarchy is used
          for the first time delegated access to controllers is
          safe. Because of this systemd-nspawn containers will get
          access to controllers now, as will systemd user
          sessions. This means containers and user sessions may now
          manage their own resources, partitioning up what the system
          grants them.

        * A new special scope unit "init.scope" has been introduced
          that encapsulates PID 1 of the system. It may be used to
          determine resource usage and enforce resource limits on PID
          1 itself. PID 1 hence moved out of the root of the control
          group tree.

        * The cgtop tool gained support for filtering out kernel
          threads when counting tasks in a control group. Also, the
          count of processes is now recursively summed up by
          default. Two options -k and --recursive= have been added to
          revert to old behaviour. The tool has also been updated to
          work correctly in containers now.

        * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --bind-ro= options have been
          extended to allow creation of non-recursive bind mounts.

        * libsystemd gained two new calls sd_pid_get_cgroup() and
          sd_peer_get_cgroup() which return the control group path of
          a process or peer of a connected AF_UNIX socket. This
          function call is particularly useful when implementing
          delegated subtrees support in the control group hierarchy.

        * The "sd-event" event loop API of libsystemd now supports
          correct dequeuing of real-time signals, without losing
          signal events.

        * When systemd requests a PolicyKit decision when managing
          units it will now add additional fields to the request,
          including unit name and desired operation. This enables more
          powerful PolicyKit policies, that make decisions depending
          on these parameters.

        * nspawn learnt support for .nspawn settings files, that may
          accompany the image files or directories of containers, and
          may contain additional settings for the container. This is
          an alternative to configuring container parameters via the
          nspawn command line.

        Contributions from: Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Mack, David
        Herrmann, Eugene Yakubovich, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Filipe
        Brandenburger, Hans de Goede, Jan Alexander Steffens, Jan
        Synacek, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Mangix, Marcel
        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michal
        Sekletar, Peter Hutterer, Piotr Drąg, reverendhomer, Robin
        Hack, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Pasche, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø

        — Berlin, 2015-09-08

CHANGES WITH 225:

        * machinectl gained a new verb 'shell' which opens a fresh
          shell on the target container or the host. It is similar to
          the existing 'login' command of machinectl, but spawns the
          shell directly without prompting for username or
          password. The pseudo machine '.host' now refers to the local
          host and is used by default. Hence, 'machinectl shell' can
          be used as replacement for 'su -' which spawns a session as
          a fresh systemd unit in a way that is fully isolated from
          the originating session.

        * systemd-networkd learned to cope with private-zone DHCP
          options and allows other programs to query the values.

        * SELinux access control when enabling/disabling units is no
          longer enforced with this release. The previous
          implementation was incorrect, and a new corrected
          implementation is not yet available. As unit file operations
          are still protected via PolicyKit and D-Bus policy this is
          not a security problem. Yet, distributions which care about
          optimal SELinux support should probably not stabilize on
          this release.

        * sd-bus gained support for matches of type "arg0has=", that
          test for membership of strings in string arrays sent in bus
          messages.

        * systemd-resolved now dumps the contents of its DNS and LLMNR
          caches to the logs on reception of the SIGUSR1 signal. This
          is useful to debug DNS behaviour.

        * The coredumpctl tool gained a new --directory= option to
          operate on journal files in a specific directory.

        * "systemctl reboot" and related commands gained a new
          "--message=" option which may be used to set a free-text
          wall message when shutting down or rebooting the
          system. This message is also logged, which is useful for
          figuring out the reason for a reboot or shutdown a
          posteriori.

        * The "systemd-resolve-host" tool's -i switch now takes
          network interface numbers as alternative to interface names.

        * A new unit file setting for services has been introduced:
          UtmpMode= allows configuration of how precisely systemd
          handles utmp and wtmp entries for the service if this is
          enabled. This allows writing services that appear similar to
          user sessions in the output of the "w", "who", "last" and
          "lastlog" tools.

        * systemd-resolved will now locally synthesize DNS resource
          records for the "localhost" and "gateway" domains as well as
          the local hostname. This should ensure that clients querying
          RRs via resolved will get similar results as those going via
          NSS, if nss-myhostname is enabled.

        Contributions from: Alastair Hughes, Alex Crawford, Daniel
        Mack, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Eric Kostrowski,
        Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, HATAYAMA Daisuke, Jan
        Pokorný, Jan Synacek, Johnny Robeson, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers,
        Kefeng Wang, Lennart Poettering, Major Hayden, Marcel
        Holtmann, Markus Elfring, Martin Mikkelsen, Martin Pitt, Matt
        Turner, Maxim Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl, Namhyung Kim,
        Nicolas Cornu, Owen W. Taylor, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer,
        reverendhomer, Richard Maw, Ronny Chevalier, Seth Jennings,
        Stef Walter, Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe
        Paaboel Andersen, Thomas Meyer, Tom Gundersen, Vincent Batts,
        WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2015-08-27

CHANGES WITH 224:

        * The systemd-efi-boot-generator functionality was merged into
          systemd-gpt-auto-generator.

        * systemd-networkd now supports Group Policy for vxlan
          devices. It can be enabled via the new boolean configuration
          option called 'GroupPolicyExtension='.

        Contributions from: Andreas Kempf, Christian Hesse, Daniel Mack, David
        Herrmann, Herman Fries, Johannes Nixdorf, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Peter Hutterer, Susant Sahani, Tom Gundersen

        — Berlin, 2015-07-31

CHANGES WITH 223:

        * The python-systemd code has been removed from the systemd repository.
          A new repository has been created which accommodates the code from
          now on, and we kindly ask distributions to create a separate package
          for this: https://github.com/systemd/python-systemd

        * The systemd daemon will now reload its main configuration
          (/etc/systemd/system.conf) on daemon-reload.

        * sd-dhcp now exposes vendor specific extensions via
          sd_dhcp_lease_get_vendor_specific().

        * systemd-networkd gained a number of new configuration options.

          - A new boolean configuration option for TAP devices called
            'VNetHeader='. If set, the IFF_VNET_HDR flag is set for the
            device, thus allowing to send and receive GSO packets.

          - A new tunnel configuration option called 'CopyDSCP='.
            If enabled, the DSCP field of ip6 tunnels is copied into the
            decapsulated packet.

          - A set of boolean bridge configuration options were added.
            'UseBPDU=', 'HairPin=', 'FastLeave=', 'AllowPortToBeRoot=',
            and 'UnicastFlood=' are now parsed by networkd and applied to the
            respective bridge link device via the respective IFLA_BRPORT_*
            netlink attribute.

          - A new string configuration option to override the hostname sent
            to a DHCP server, called 'Hostname='. If set and 'SendHostname='
            is true, networkd will use the configured hostname instead of the
            system hostname when sending DHCP requests.

          - A new tunnel configuration option called 'IPv6FlowLabel='. If set,
            networkd will configure the IPv6 flow-label of the tunnel device
            according to RFC2460.

          - The 'macvtap' virtual network devices are now supported, similar to
            the already supported 'macvlan' devices.

        * systemd-resolved now implements RFC5452 to improve resilience against
          cache poisoning. Additionally, source port randomization is enabled
          by default to further protect against DNS spoofing attacks.

        * nss-mymachines now supports translating UIDs and GIDs of running
          containers with user-namespaces enabled. If a container 'foo'
          translates a host uid 'UID' to the container uid 'TUID', then
          nss-mymachines will also map uid 'UID' to/from username 'vu-foo-TUID'
          (with 'foo' and 'TUID' replaced accordingly). Similarly, groups are
          mapped as 'vg-foo-TGID'.

        Contributions from: Beniamino Galvani, cee1, Christian Hesse, Daniel
        Buch, Daniel Mack, daurnimator, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov,
        HATAYAMA Daisuke, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Alexander Steffens (heftig),
        Johan Ouwerkerk, Jose Carlos Venegas Munoz, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Lidong Zhong, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael
        Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Namhyung Kim,
        Nick Owens, Peter Hutterer, Richard Maw, Steven Allen, Sungbae Yoo,
        Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom
        Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito Caputo,
        Vivenzio Pagliari, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2015-07-29

CHANGES WITH 222:

        * udev does not longer support the WAIT_FOR_SYSFS= key in udev rules.
          There are no known issues with current sysfs, and udev does not need
          or should be used to work around such bugs.

        * udev does no longer enable USB HID power management. Several reports
          indicate, that some devices cannot handle that setting.

        * The udev accelerometer helper was removed. The functionality
          is now fully included in iio-sensor-proxy. But this means,
          older iio-sensor-proxy versions will no longer provide
          accelerometer/orientation data with this systemd version.
          Please upgrade iio-sensor-proxy to version 1.0.

        * networkd gained a new configuration option IPv6PrivacyExtensions=
          which enables IPv6 privacy extensions (RFC 4941, "Privacy Extensions
          for Stateless Address") on selected networks.

        * For the sake of fewer build-time dependencies and less code in the
          main repository, the python bindings are about to be removed in the
          next release. A new repository has been created which accommodates
          the code from now on, and we kindly ask distributions to create a
          separate package for this. The removal will take place in v223.

            https://github.com/systemd/python-systemd

        Contributions from: Abdo Roig-Maranges, Andrew Eikum, Bastien Nocera,
        Cédric Delmas, Christian Hesse, Christos Trochalakis, Daniel Mack,
        daurnimator, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Eric Biggers, Eric
        Cook, Felipe Sateler, Geert Jansen, Gerd Hoffmann, Gianpaolo Macario,
        Greg Kroah-Hartman, Iago López Galeiras, Jan Alexander Steffens
        (heftig), Jan Engelhardt, Jay Strict, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
        Markus Knetschke, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau, Michal
        Sekletar, Miguel Bernal Marin, Peter Hutterer, Richard Maw, rinrinne,
        Susant Sahani, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
        Husebø, Vedran Miletić, WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2015-07-07

CHANGES WITH 221:

        * The sd-bus.h and sd-event.h APIs have now been declared
          stable and have been added to the official interface of
          libsystemd.so. sd-bus implements an alternative D-Bus client
          library, that is relatively easy to use, very efficient and
          supports both classic D-Bus as well as kdbus as transport
          backend. sd-event is a generic event loop abstraction that
          is built around Linux epoll, but adds features such as event
          prioritization or efficient timer handling. Both APIs are good
          choices for C programs looking for a bus and/or event loop
          implementation that is minimal and does not have to be
          portable to other kernels.

        * kdbus support is no longer compile-time optional. It is now
          always built-in. However, it can still be disabled at
          runtime using the kdbus=0 kernel command line setting, and
          that setting may be changed to default to off, by specifying
          --disable-kdbus at build-time. Note though that the kernel
          command line setting has no effect if the kdbus.ko kernel
          module is not installed, in which case kdbus is (obviously)
          also disabled. We encourage all downstream distributions to
          begin testing kdbus by adding it to the kernel images in the
          development distributions, and leaving kdbus support in
          systemd enabled.

        * The minimal required util-linux version has been bumped to
          2.26.

        * Support for chkconfig (--enable-chkconfig) was removed in
          favor of calling an abstraction tool
          /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install. This needs to be
          implemented for your distribution. See "SYSV INIT.D SCRIPTS"
          in README for details.

        * If there's a systemd unit and a SysV init script for the
          same service name, and the user executes "systemctl enable"
          for it (or a related call), then this will now enable both
          (or execute the related operation on both), not just the
          unit.

        * The libudev API documentation has been converted from gtkdoc
          into man pages.

        * gudev has been removed from the systemd tree, it is now an
          external project.

        * The systemd-cgtop tool learnt a new --raw switch to generate
          "raw" (machine parsable) output.

        * networkd's IPForwarding= .network file setting learnt the
          new setting "kernel", which ensures that networkd does not
          change the IP forwarding sysctl from the default kernel
          state.

        * The systemd-logind bus API now exposes a new boolean
          property "Docked" that reports whether logind considers the
          system "docked", i.e. connected to a docking station or not.

        Contributions from: Alex Crawford, Andreas Pokorny, Andrei
        Borzenkov, Charles Duffy, Colin Guthrie, Cristian Rodríguez,
        Daniele Medri, Daniel Hahler, Daniel Mack, David Herrmann,
        David Mohr, Dimitri John Ledkov, Djalal Harouni, dslul, Ed
        Swierk, Eric Cook, Filipe Brandenburger, Gianpaolo Macario,
        Harald Hoyer, Iago López Galeiras, Igor Vuk, Jan Synacek,
        Jason Pleau, Jason S. McMullan, Jean Delvare, Jeff Huang,
        Jonathan Boulle, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, kloun, Lennart
        Poettering, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Mario
        Limonciello, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich,
        Michal Schmidt, Mike Gilbert, Nick Owens, Pablo Lezaeta Reyes,
        Patrick Donnelly, Pavel Odvody, Peter Hutterer, Philip
        Withnall, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie, Susant Sahani,
        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
        Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Viktar Vauchkevich, Werner
        Fink, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2015-06-19

CHANGES WITH 220:

        * The gudev library has been extracted into a separate repository
          available at: https://git.gnome.org/browse/libgudev/
          It is now managed as part of the Gnome project. Distributions
          are recommended to pass --disable-gudev to systemd and use
          gudev from the Gnome project instead. gudev is still included
          in systemd, for now. It will be removed soon, though. Please
          also see the announcement-thread on systemd-devel:
          https://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/systemd-devel/2015-May/032070.html

        * systemd now exposes a CPUUsageNSec= property for each
          service unit on the bus, that contains the overall consumed
          CPU time of a service (the sum of what each process of the
          service consumed). This value is only available if
          CPUAccounting= is turned on for a service, and is then shown
          in the "systemctl status" output.

        * Support for configuring alternative mappings of the old SysV
          runlevels to systemd targets has been removed. They are now
          hardcoded in a way that runlevels 2, 3, 4 all map to
          multi-user.target and 5 to graphical.target (which
          previously was already the default behaviour).

        * The auto-mounter logic gained support for mount point
          expiry, using a new TimeoutIdleSec= setting in .automount
          units. (Also available as x-systemd.idle-timeout= in /etc/fstab).

        * The EFI System Partition (ESP) as mounted to /boot by
          systemd-efi-boot-generator will now be unmounted
          automatically after 2 minutes of not being used. This should
          minimize the risk of ESP corruptions.

        * New /etc/fstab options x-systemd.requires= and
          x-systemd.requires-mounts-for= are now supported to express
          additional dependencies for mounts. This is useful for
          journalling file systems that support external journal
          devices or overlay file systems that require underlying file
          systems to be mounted.

        * systemd does not support direct live-upgrades (via systemctl
          daemon-reexec) from versions older than v44 anymore. As no
          distribution we are aware of shipped such old versions in a
          stable release this should not be problematic.

        * When systemd forks off a new per-connection service instance
          it will now set the $REMOTE_ADDR environment variable to the
          remote IP address, and $REMOTE_PORT environment variable to
          the remote IP port. This behaviour is similar to the
          corresponding environment variables defined by CGI.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for uplink failure
          detection. The BindCarrier= option allows binding interface
          configuration dynamically to the link sense of other
          interfaces. This is useful to achieve behaviour like in
          network switches.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring the DHCP
          client identifier to use when requesting leases.

        * systemd-networkd now has a per-network UseNTP= option to
          configure whether NTP server information acquired via DHCP
          is passed on to services like systemd-timesyncd.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for vti6 tunnels.

        * Note that systemd-networkd manages the sysctl variable
          /proc/sys/net/ipv[46]/conf/*/forwarding for each interface
          it is configured for since v219. The variable controls IP
          forwarding, and is a per-interface alternative to the global
          /proc/sys/net/ipv[46]/ip_forward. This setting is
          configurable in the IPForward= option, which defaults to
          "no". This means if networkd is used for an interface it is
          no longer sufficient to set the global sysctl option to turn
          on IP forwarding! Instead, the .network file option
          IPForward= needs to be turned on! Note that the
          implementation of this behaviour was broken in v219 and has
          been fixed in v220.

        * Many bonding and vxlan options are now configurable in
          systemd-networkd.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --property= setting to set unit
          properties for the container scope. This is useful for
          setting resource parameters (e.g. "CPUShares=500") on
          containers started from the command line.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --private-users= switch to make
          use of user namespacing available on recent Linux kernels.

        * systemd-nspawn may now be called as part of a shell pipeline
          in which case the pipes used for stdin and stdout are passed
          directly to the process invoked in the container, without
          indirection via a pseudo tty.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new switch to control the UNIX
          signal to use when killing the init process of the container
          when shutting down.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --overlay= switch for mounting
          overlay file systems into the container using the new kernel
          overlayfs support.

        * When a container image is imported via systemd-importd and
          the host file system is not btrfs, a loopback block device
          file is created in /var/lib/machines.raw with a btrfs file
          system inside. It is then mounted to /var/lib/machines to
          enable btrfs features for container management. The loopback
          file and btrfs file system is grown as needed when container
          images are imported via systemd-importd.

        * systemd-machined/systemd-importd gained support for btrfs
          quota, to enforce container disk space limits on disk. This
          is exposed in "machinectl set-limit".

        * systemd-importd now can import containers from local .tar,
          .raw and .qcow2 images, and export them to .tar and .raw. It
          can also import dkr v2 images now from the network (on top
          of v1 as before).

        * systemd-importd gained support for verifying downloaded
          images with gpg2 (previously only gpg1 was supported).

        * systemd-machined, systemd-logind, systemd: most bus calls
          are now accessible to unprivileged processes via
          PolicyKit. Also, systemd-logind will now allow users to kill
          their own sessions without further privileges or
          authorization.

        * systemd-shutdownd has been removed. This service was
          previously responsible for implementing scheduled shutdowns
          as exposed in /usr/bin/shutdown's time parameter. This
          functionality has now been moved into systemd-logind and is
          accessible via a bus interface.

        * "systemctl reboot" gained a new switch --firmware-setup that
          can be used to reboot into the EFI firmware setup, if that
          is available. systemd-logind now exposes an API on the bus
          to trigger such reboots, in case graphical desktop UIs want
          to cover this functionality.

        * "systemctl enable", "systemctl disable" and "systemctl mask"
          now support a new "--now" switch. If specified the units
          that are enabled will also be started, and the ones
          disabled/masked also stopped.

        * The Gummiboot EFI boot loader tool has been merged into
          systemd, and renamed to "systemd-boot". The bootctl tool has been
          updated to support systemd-boot.

        * An EFI kernel stub has been added that may be used to create
          kernel EFI binaries that contain not only the actual kernel,
          but also an initrd, boot splash, command line and OS release
          information. This combined binary can then be signed as a
          single image, so that the firmware can verify it all in one
          step. systemd-boot has special support for EFI binaries created
          like this and can extract OS release information from them
          and show them in the boot menu. This functionality is useful
          to implement cryptographically verified boot schemes.

        * Optional support has been added to systemd-fsck to pass
          fsck's progress report to an AF_UNIX socket in the file
          system.

        * udev will no longer create device symlinks for all block
          devices by default. A blacklist for excluding special block
          devices from this logic has been turned into a whitelist
          that requires picking block devices explicitly that require
          device symlinks.

        * A new (currently still internal) API sd-device.h has been
          added to libsystemd. This modernized API is supposed to
          replace libudev eventually. In fact, already much of libudev
          is now just a wrapper around sd-device.h.

        * A new hwdb database for storing metadata about pointing
          stick devices has been added.

        * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for setting file attributes
          similar to the "chattr" tool with new 'h' and 'H' lines.

        * systemd-journald will no longer unconditionally set the
          btrfs NOCOW flag on new journal files. This is instead done
          with tmpfiles snippet using the new 'h' line type. This
          allows easy disabling of this logic, by masking the
          journal-nocow.conf tmpfiles file.

        * systemd-journald will now translate audit message types to
          human readable identifiers when writing them to the
          journal. This should improve readability of audit messages.

        * The LUKS logic gained support for the offset= and skip=
          options in /etc/crypttab, as previously implemented by
          Debian.

        * /usr/lib/os-release gained a new optional field VARIANT= for
          distributions that support multiple variants (such as a
          desktop edition, a server edition, ...)

        Contributions from: Aaro Koskinen, Adam Goode, Alban Crequy,
        Alberto Fanjul Alonso, Alexander Sverdlin, Alex Puchades, Alin
        Rauta, Alison Chaiken, Andrew Jones, Arend van Spriel,
        Benedikt Morbach, Benjamin Franzke, Benjamin Tissoires, Blaž
        Tomažič, Chris Morgan, Chris Morin, Colin Walters, Cristian
        Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniel Drake, Daniele Medri, Daniel
        Mack, Daniel Mustieles, daurnimator, Davide Bettio, David
        Herrmann, David Strauss, Didier Roche, Dimitri John Ledkov,
        Eric Cook, Gavin Li, Goffredo Baroncelli, Hannes Reinecke,
        Hans de Goede, Hans-Peter Deifel, Harald Hoyer, Iago López
        Galeiras, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jan
        Pazdziora, Jan Synacek, Jasper St. Pierre, Jay Faulkner, John
        Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jonathon Gilbert, Karel Zak, Kay
        Sievers, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas
        De Marchi, Lukas Nykryn, Lukas Rusak, Lukasz Skalski, Łukasz
        Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel
        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Mathieu Chevrier, Matthew Garrett,
        Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal
        Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mirco Tischler, Nir Soffer, Patrik
        Flykt, Pavel Odvody, Peter Hutterer, Peter Lemenkov, Peter
        Waller, Piotr Drąg, Raul Gutierrez S, Richard Maw, Ronny
        Chevalier, Ross Burton, Sebastian Rasmussen, Sergey Ptashnick,
        Seth Jennings, Shawn Landden, Simon Farnsworth, Stefan Junker,
        Stephen Gallagher, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas
        Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tobias Hunger, Tom
        Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Will
        Woods, Zachary Cook, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2015-05-22

CHANGES WITH 219:

        * Introduce a new API "sd-hwdb.h" for querying the hardware
          metadata database. With this minimal interface one can query
          and enumerate the udev hwdb, decoupled from the old libudev
          library. libudev's interface for this is now only a wrapper
          around sd-hwdb. A new tool systemd-hwdb has been added to
          interface with and update the database.

        * When any of systemd's tools copies files (for example due to
          tmpfiles' C lines) a btrfs reflink will attempted first,
          before bytewise copying is done.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --ephemeral switch. When
          specified a btrfs snapshot is taken of the container's root
          directory, and immediately removed when the container
          terminates again. Thus, a container can be started whose
          changes never alter the container's root directory, and are
          lost on container termination. This switch can also be used
          for starting a container off the root file system of the
          host without affecting the host OS. This switch is only
          available on btrfs file systems.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --template= switch. It takes the
          path to a container tree to use as template for the tree
          specified via --directory=, should that directory be
          missing. This allows instantiating containers dynamically,
          on first run. This switch is only available on btrfs file
          systems.

        * When a .mount unit refers to a mount point on which multiple
          mounts are stacked, and the .mount unit is stopped all of
          the stacked mount points will now be unmounted until no
          mount point remains.

        * systemd now has an explicit notion of supported and
          unsupported unit types. Jobs enqueued for unsupported unit
          types will now fail with an "unsupported" error code. More
          specifically .swap, .automount and .device units are not
          supported in containers, .busname units are not supported on
          non-kdbus systems. .swap and .automount are also not
          supported if their respective kernel compile time options
          are disabled.

        * machinectl gained support for two new "copy-from" and
          "copy-to" commands for copying files from a running
          container to the host or vice versa.

        * machinectl gained support for a new "bind" command to bind
          mount host directories into local containers. This is
          currently only supported for nspawn containers.

        * networkd gained support for configuring bridge forwarding
          database entries (fdb) from .network files.

        * A new tiny daemon "systemd-importd" has been added that can
          download container images in tar, raw, qcow2 or dkr formats,
          and make them available locally in /var/lib/machines, so
          that they can run as nspawn containers. The daemon can GPG
          verify the downloads (not supported for dkr, since it has no
          provisions for verifying downloads). It will transparently
          decompress bz2, xz, gzip compressed downloads if necessary,
          and restore sparse files on disk. The daemon uses privilege
          separation to ensure the actual download logic runs with
          fewer privileges than the daemon itself. machinectl has
          gained new commands "pull-tar", "pull-raw" and "pull-dkr" to
          make the functionality of importd available to the
          user. With this in place the Fedora and Ubuntu "Cloud"
          images can be downloaded and booted as containers unmodified
          (the Fedora images lack the appropriate GPG signature files
          currently, so they cannot be verified, but this will change
          soon, hopefully). Note that downloading images is currently
          only fully supported on btrfs.

        * machinectl is now able to list container images found in
          /var/lib/machines, along with some metadata about sizes of
          disk and similar. If the directory is located on btrfs and
          quota is enabled, this includes quota display. A new command
          "image-status" has been added that shows additional
          information about images.

        * machinectl is now able to clone container images
          efficiently, if the underlying file system (btrfs) supports
          it, with the new "machinectl clone" command. It also
          gained commands for renaming and removing images, as well as
          marking them read-only or read-write (supported also on
          legacy file systems).

        * networkd gained support for collecting LLDP network
          announcements, from hardware that supports this. This is
          shown in networkctl output.

        * systemd-run gained support for a new -t (--pty) switch for
          invoking a binary on a pty whose input and output is
          connected to the invoking terminal. This allows executing
          processes as system services while interactively
          communicating with them via the terminal. Most interestingly
          this is supported across container boundaries. Invoking
          "systemd-run -t /bin/bash" is an alternative to running a
          full login session, the difference being that the former
          will not register a session, nor go through the PAM session
          setup.

        * tmpfiles gained support for a new "v" line type for creating
          btrfs subvolumes. If the underlying file system is a legacy
          file system, this automatically degrades to creating a
          normal directory. Among others /var/lib/machines is now
          created like this at boot, should it be missing.

        * The directory /var/lib/containers/ has been deprecated and
          been replaced by /var/lib/machines. The term "machines" has
          been used in the systemd context as generic term for both
          VMs and containers, and hence appears more appropriate for
          this, as the directory can also contain raw images bootable
          via qemu/kvm.

        * systemd-nspawn when invoked with -M but without --directory=
          or --image= is now capable of searching for the container
          root directory, subvolume or disk image automatically, in
          /var/lib/machines. systemd-nspawn@.service has been updated
          to make use of this, thus allowing it to be used for raw
          disk images, too.

        * A new machines.target unit has been introduced that is
          supposed to group all containers/VMs invoked as services on
          the system. systemd-nspawn@.service has been updated to
          integrate with that.

        * machinectl gained a new "start" command, for invoking a
          container as a service. "machinectl start foo" is mostly
          equivalent to "systemctl start systemd-nspawn@foo.service",
          but handles escaping in a nicer way.

        * systemd-nspawn will now mount most of the cgroupfs tree
          read-only into each container, with the exception of the
          container's own subtree in the name=systemd hierarchy.

        * journald now sets the special FS_NOCOW file flag for its
          journal files. This should improve performance on btrfs, by
          avoiding heavy fragmentation when journald's write-pattern
          is used on COW file systems. It degrades btrfs' data
          integrity guarantees for the files to the same levels as for
          ext3/ext4 however. This should be OK though as journald does
          its own data integrity checks and all its objects are
          checksummed on disk. Also, journald should handle btrfs disk
          full events a lot more gracefully now, by processing SIGBUS
          errors, and not relying on fallocate() anymore.

        * When journald detects that journal files it is writing to
          have been deleted it will immediately start new journal
          files.

        * systemd now provides a way to store file descriptors
          per-service in PID 1. This is useful for daemons to ensure
          that fds they require are not lost during a daemon
          restart. The fds are passed to the daemon on the next
          invocation in the same way socket activation fds are
          passed. This is now used by journald to ensure that the
          various sockets connected to all the system's stdout/stderr
          are not lost when journald is restarted. File descriptors
          may be stored in PID 1 via the sd_pid_notify_with_fds() API,
          an extension to sd_notify(). Note that a limit is enforced
          on the number of fds a service can store in PID 1, and it
          defaults to 0, so that no fds may be stored, unless this is
          explicitly turned on.

        * The default TERM variable to use for units connected to a
          terminal, when no other value is explicitly is set is now
          vt220 rather than vt102. This should be fairly safe still,
          but allows PgUp/PgDn work.

        * The /etc/crypttab option header= as known from Debian is now
          supported.

        * "loginctl user-status" and "loginctl session-status" will
          now show the last 10 lines of log messages of the
          user/session following the status output. Similar,
          "machinectl status" will show the last 10 log lines
          associated with a virtual machine or container
          service. (Note that this is usually not the log messages
          done in the VM/container itself, but simply what the
          container manager logs. For nspawn this includes all console
          output however.)

        * "loginctl session-status" without further argument will now
          show the status of the session of the caller. Similar,
          "lock-session", "unlock-session", "activate",
          "enable-linger", "disable-linger" may now be called without
          session/user parameter in which case they apply to the
          caller's session/user.

        * An X11 session scriptlet is now shipped that uploads
          $DISPLAY and $XAUTHORITY into the environment of the systemd
          --user daemon if a session begins. This should improve
          compatibility with X11 enabled applications run as systemd
          user services.

        * Generators are now subject to masking via /etc and /run, the
          same way as unit files.

        * networkd .network files gained support for configuring
          per-link IPv4/IPv6 packet forwarding as well as IPv4
          masquerading. This is by default turned on for veth links to
          containers, as registered by systemd-nspawn. This means that
          nspawn containers run with --network-veth will now get
          automatic routed access to the host's networks without any
          further configuration or setup, as long as networkd runs on
          the host.

        * systemd-nspawn gained the --port= (-p) switch to expose TCP
          or UDP posts of a container on the host. With this in place
          it is possible to run containers with private veth links
          (--network-veth), and have their functionality exposed on
          the host as if their services were running directly on the
          host.

        * systemd-nspawn's --network-veth switch now gained a short
          version "-n", since with the changes above it is now truly
          useful out-of-the-box. The systemd-nspawn@.service has been
          updated to make use of it too by default.

        * systemd-nspawn will now maintain a per-image R/W lock, to
          ensure that the same image is not started more than once
          writable. (It's OK to run an image multiple times
          simultaneously in read-only mode.)

        * systemd-nspawn's --image= option is now capable of
          dissecting and booting MBR and GPT disk images that contain
          only a single active Linux partition. Previously it
          supported only GPT disk images with proper GPT type
          IDs. This allows running cloud images from major
          distributions directly with systemd-nspawn, without
          modification.

        * In addition to collecting mouse dpi data in the udev
          hardware database, there's now support for collecting angle
          information for mouse scroll wheels. The database is
          supposed to guarantee similar scrolling behavior on mice
          that it knows about. There's also support for collecting
          information about Touchpad types.

        * udev's input_id built-in will now also collect touch screen
          dimension data and attach it to probed devices.

        * /etc/os-release gained support for a Distribution Privacy
          Policy link field.

        * networkd gained support for creating "ipvlan", "gretap",
          "ip6gre", "ip6gretap" and "ip6tnl" network devices.

        * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for "a" lines for setting
          ACLs on files.

        * systemd-nspawn will now mount /tmp in the container to
          tmpfs, automatically.

        * systemd now exposes the memory.usage_in_bytes cgroup
          attribute and shows it for each service in the "systemctl
          status" output, if available.

        * When the user presses Ctrl-Alt-Del more than 7x within 2s an
          immediate reboot is triggered. This useful if shutdown is
          hung and is unable to complete, to expedite the
          operation. Note that this kind of reboot will still unmount
          all file systems, and hence should not result in fsck being
          run on next reboot.

        * A .device unit for an optical block device will now be
          considered active only when a medium is in the drive. Also,
          mount units are now bound to their backing devices thus
          triggering automatic unmounting when devices become
          unavailable. With this in place systemd will now
          automatically unmount left-over mounts when a CD-ROM is
          ejected or an USB stick is yanked from the system.

        * networkd-wait-online now has support for waiting for
          specific interfaces only (with globbing), and for giving up
          after a configurable timeout.

        * networkd now exits when idle. It will be automatically
          restarted as soon as interfaces show up, are removed or
          change state. networkd will stay around as long as there is
          at least one DHCP state machine or similar around, that keep
          it non-idle.

        * networkd may now configure IPv6 link-local addressing in
          addition to IPv4 link-local addressing.

        * The IPv6 "token" for use in SLAAC may now be configured for
          each .network interface in networkd.

        * Routes configured with networkd may now be assigned a scope
          in .network files.

        * networkd's [Match] sections now support globbing and lists
          of multiple space-separated matches per item.

        Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alin Rauta, Andrey Chaser,
        Bastien Nocera, Bruno Bottazzini, Carlos Garnacho, Carlos
        Morata Castillo, Chris Atkinson, Chris J. Arges, Christian
        Kirbach, Christian Seiler, Christoph Brill, Colin Guthrie,
        Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack,
        Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni, Erik Auerswald,
        Filipe Brandenburger, Frank Theile, Gabor Kelemen, Gabriel de
        Perthuis, Harald Hoyer, Hui Wang, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan
        Engelhardt, Jan Synacek, Jay Faulkner, Johannes Hölzl, Jonas
        Ådahl, Jonathan Boulle, Josef Andersson, Kay Sievers, Ken
        Werner, Lennart Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Lukas Märdian,
        Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz Skalski, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Manuel Mendez, Marcel Holtmann, Marc Schmitzer, Marko
        Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Maxim Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl,
        Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Mindaugas
        Baranauskas, Moez Bouhlel, Naveen Kumar, Patrik Flykt, Paul
        Martin, Peter Hutterer, Peter Mattern, Philippe De Swert,
        Piotr Drąg, Rafael Ferreira, Rami Rosen, Robert Milasan, Ronny
        Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Sebastien Bacher, Sergey Ptashnick,
        Shawn Landden, Stéphane Graber, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
        Plantefève, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tim JP, Tom
        Gundersen, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar
        Lindskog, Veres Lajos, Vincent Batts, WaLyong Cho, Wieland
        Hoffmann, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2015-02-16

CHANGES WITH 218:

        * When querying unit file enablement status (for example via
          "systemctl is-enabled"), a new state "indirect" is now known
          which indicates that a unit might not be enabled itself, but
          another unit listed in its Also= setting might be.

        * Similar to the various existing ConditionXYZ= settings for
          units, there are now matching AssertXYZ= settings. While
          failing conditions cause a unit to be skipped, but its job
          to succeed, failing assertions declared like this will cause
          a unit start operation and its job to fail.

        * hostnamed now knows a new chassis type "embedded".

        * systemctl gained a new "edit" command. When used on a unit
          file, this allows extending unit files with .d/ drop-in
          configuration snippets or editing the full file (after
          copying it from /usr/lib to /etc). This will invoke the
          user's editor (as configured with $EDITOR), and reload the
          modified configuration after editing.

        * "systemctl status" now shows the suggested enablement state
          for a unit, as declared in the (usually vendor-supplied)
          system preset files.

        * nss-myhostname will now resolve the single-label host name
          "gateway" to the locally configured default IP routing
          gateways, ordered by their metrics. This assigns a stable
          name to the used gateways, regardless which ones are
          currently configured. Note that the name will only be
          resolved after all other name sources (if nss-myhostname is
          configured properly) and should hence not negatively impact
          systems that use the single-label host name "gateway" in
          other contexts.

        * systemd-inhibit now allows filtering by mode when listing
          inhibitors.

        * Scope and service units gained a new "Delegate" boolean
          property, which, when set, allows processes running inside the
          unit to further partition resources. This is primarily
          useful for systemd user instances as well as container
          managers.

        * journald will now pick up audit messages directly from
          the kernel, and log them like any other log message. The
          audit fields are split up and fully indexed. This means that
          journalctl in many ways is now a (nicer!) alternative to
          ausearch, the traditional audit client. Note that this
          implements only a minimal audit client. If you want the
          special audit modes like reboot-on-log-overflow, please use
          the traditional auditd instead, which can be used in
          parallel to journald.

        * The ConditionSecurity= unit file option now understands the
          special string "audit" to check whether auditing is
          available.

        * journalctl gained two new commands --vacuum-size= and
          --vacuum-time= to delete old journal files until the
          remaining ones take up no more than the specified size on disk,
          or are not older than the specified time.

        * A new, native PPPoE library has been added to sd-network,
          systemd's library of light-weight networking protocols. This
          library will be used in a future version of networkd to
          enable PPPoE communication without an external pppd daemon.

        * The busctl tool now understands a new "capture" verb that
          works similar to "monitor", but writes a packet capture
          trace to STDOUT that can be redirected to a file which is
          compatible with libcap's capture file format. This can then
          be loaded in Wireshark and similar tools to inspect bus
          communication.

        * The busctl tool now understands a new "tree" verb that shows
          the object trees of a specific service on the bus, or of all
          services.

        * The busctl tool now understands a new "introspect" verb that
          shows all interfaces and members of objects on the bus,
          including their signature and values. This is particularly
          useful to get more information about bus objects shown by
          the new "busctl tree" command.

        * The busctl tool now understands new verbs "call",
          "set-property" and "get-property" for invoking bus method
          calls, setting and getting bus object properties in a
          friendly way.

        * busctl gained a new --augment-creds= argument that controls
          whether the tool shall augment credential information it
          gets from the bus with data from /proc, in a possibly
          race-ful way.

        * nspawn's --link-journal= switch gained two new values
          "try-guest" and "try-host" that work like "guest" and
          "host", but do not fail if the host has no persistent
          journalling enabled. -j is now equivalent to
          --link-journal=try-guest.

        * macvlan network devices created by nspawn will now have
          stable MAC addresses.

        * A new SmackProcessLabel= unit setting has been added, which
          controls the SMACK security label processes forked off by
          the respective unit shall use.

        * If compiled with --enable-xkbcommon, systemd-localed will
          verify x11 keymap settings by compiling the given keymap. It
          will spew out warnings if the compilation fails. This
          requires libxkbcommon to be installed.

        * When a coredump is collected, a larger number of metadata
          fields is now collected and included in the journal records
          created for it. More specifically, control group membership,
          environment variables, memory maps, working directory,
          chroot directory, /proc/$PID/status, and a list of open file
          descriptors is now stored in the log entry.

        * The udev hwdb now contains DPI information for mice. For
          details see:

          http://who-t.blogspot.de/2014/12/building-a-dpi-database-for-mice.html

        * All systemd programs that read standalone configuration
          files in /etc now also support a corresponding series of
          .conf.d configuration directories in /etc/, /run/,
          /usr/local/lib/, /usr/lib/, and (if configured with
          --enable-split-usr) /lib/.  In particular, the following
          configuration files now have corresponding configuration
          directories: system.conf user.conf, logind.conf,
          journald.conf, sleep.conf, bootchart.conf, coredump.conf,
          resolved.conf, timesyncd.conf, journal-remote.conf, and
          journal-upload.conf.  Note that distributions should use the
          configuration directories in /usr/lib/; the directories in
          /etc/ are reserved for the system administrator.

        * systemd-rfkill will no longer take the rfkill device name
          into account when storing rfkill state on disk, as the name
          might be dynamically assigned and not stable. Instead, the
          ID_PATH udev variable combined with the rfkill type (wlan,
          bluetooth, ...) is used.

        * A new service systemd-machine-id-commit.service has been
          added. When used on systems where /etc is read-only during
          boot, and /etc/machine-id is not initialized (but an empty
          file), this service will copy the temporary machine ID
          created as replacement into /etc after the system is fully
          booted up. This is useful for systems that are freshly
          installed with a non-initialized machine ID, but should get
          a fixed machine ID for subsequent boots.

        * networkd's .netdev files now provide a large set of
          configuration parameters for VXLAN devices. Similarly, the
          bridge port cost parameter is now configurable in .network
          files. There's also new support for configuring IP source
          routing. networkd .link files gained support for a new
          OriginalName= match that is useful to match against the
          original interface name the kernel assigned. .network files
          may include MTU= and MACAddress= fields for altering the MTU
          and MAC address while being connected to a specific network
          interface.

        * The LUKS logic gained supported for configuring
          UUID-specific key files. There's also new support for naming
          LUKS device from the kernel command line, using the new
          luks.name= argument.

        * Timer units may now be transiently created via the bus API
          (this was previously already available for scope and service
          units). In addition it is now possible to create multiple
          transient units at the same time with a single bus call. The
          "systemd-run" tool has been updated to make use of this for
          running commands on a specified time, in at(1)-style.

        * tmpfiles gained support for "t" lines, for assigning
          extended attributes to files. Among other uses this may be
          used to assign SMACK labels to files.

        Contributions from: Alin Rauta, Alison Chaiken, Andrej
        Manduch, Bastien Nocera, Chris Atkinson, Chris Leech, Chris
        Mayo, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez,
        Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dan Williams, Dan Winship, Dave
        Reisner, David Herrmann, Didier Roche, Felipe Sateler, Gavin
        Li, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Iago López Galeiras, Ivan
        Shapovalov, Jakub Filak, Jan Janssen, Jan Synacek, Joe
        Lawrence, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
        Lukas Nykryn, Łukasz Stelmach, Maciej Wereski, Mantas
        Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Maurizio Lombardi,
        Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michael Marineau, Michal
        Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Olivier Brunel, Patrik Flykt, Peter
        Hutterer, Przemyslaw Kedzierski, Rami Rosen, Ray Strode,
        Richard Schütz, Richard W.M. Jones, Ronny Chevalier, Ross
        Lagerwall, Sean Young, Stanisław Pitucha, Susant Sahani,
        Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen,
        Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vicente Olivert
        Riera, WaLyong Cho, Wesley Dawson, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-12-10

CHANGES WITH 217:

        * journalctl gained the new options -t/--identifier= to match
          on the syslog identifier (aka "tag"), as well as --utc to
          show log timestamps in the UTC timezone. journalctl now also
          accepts -n/--lines=all to disable line capping in a pager.

        * journalctl gained a new switch, --flush, that synchronously
          flushes logs from /run/log/journal to /var/log/journal if
          persistent storage is enabled. systemd-journal-flush.service
          now waits until the operation is complete.

        * Services can notify the manager before they start a reload
          (by sending RELOADING=1) or shutdown (by sending
          STOPPING=1). This allows the manager to track and show the
          internal state of daemons and closes a race condition when
          the process is still running but has closed its D-Bus
          connection.

        * Services with Type=oneshot do not have to have any ExecStart
          commands anymore.

        * User units are now loaded also from
          $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/systemd/user/. This is similar to the
          /run/systemd/user directory that was already previously
          supported, but is under the control of the user.

        * Job timeouts (i.e. time-outs on the time a job that is
          queued stays in the run queue) can now optionally result in
          immediate reboot or power-off actions (JobTimeoutAction= and
          JobTimeoutRebootArgument=). This is useful on ".target"
          units, to limit the maximum time a target remains
          undispatched in the run queue, and to trigger an emergency
          operation in such a case. This is now used by default to
          turn off the system if boot-up (as defined by everything in
          basic.target) hangs and does not complete for at least
          15min. Also, if power-off or reboot hang for at least 30min
          an immediate power-off/reboot operation is triggered. This
          functionality is particularly useful to increase reliability
          on embedded devices, but also on laptops which might
          accidentally get powered on when carried in a backpack and
          whose boot stays stuck in a hard disk encryption passphrase
          question.

        * systemd-logind can be configured to also handle lid switch
          events even when the machine is docked or multiple displays
          are attached (HandleLidSwitchDocked= option).

        * A helper binary and a service have been added which can be
          used to resume from hibernation in the initramfs. A
          generator will parse the resume= option on the kernel
          command line to trigger resume.

        * A user console daemon systemd-consoled has been
          added. Currently, it is a preview, and will so far open a
          single terminal on each session of the user marked as
          Desktop=systemd-console.

        * Route metrics can be specified for DHCP routes added by
          systemd-networkd.

        * The SELinux context of socket-activated services can be set
          from the information provided by the networking stack
          (SELinuxContextFromNet= option).

        * Userspace firmware loading support has been removed and
          the minimum supported kernel version is thus bumped to 3.7.

        * Timeout for udev workers has been increased from 1 to 3
          minutes, but a warning will be printed after 1 minute to
          help diagnose kernel modules that take a long time to load.

        * Udev rules can now remove tags on devices with TAG-="foobar".

        * systemd's readahead implementation has been removed. In many
          circumstances it didn't give expected benefits even for
          rotational disk drives and was becoming less relevant in the
          age of SSDs. As none of the developers has been using
          rotating media anymore, and nobody stepped up to actively
          maintain this component of systemd it has now been removed.

        * Swap units can use Options= to specify discard options.
          Discard options specified for swaps in /etc/fstab are now
          respected.

        * Docker containers are now detected as a separate type of
          virtualization.

        * The Password Agent protocol gained support for queries where
          the user input is shown, useful e.g. for user names.
          systemd-ask-password gained a new --echo option to turn that
          on.

        * The default sysctl.d/ snippets will now set:

                net.core.default_qdisc = fq_codel

          This selects Fair Queuing Controlled Delay as the default
          queuing discipline for network interfaces. fq_codel helps
          fight the network bufferbloat problem. It is believed to be
          a good default with no tuning required for most workloads.
          Downstream distributions may override this choice. On 10Gbit
          servers that do not do forwarding, "fq" may perform better.
          Systems without a good clocksource should use "pfifo_fast".

        * If kdbus is enabled during build a new option BusPolicy= is
          available for service units, that allows locking all service
          processes into a stricter bus policy, in order to limit
          access to various bus services, or even hide most of them
          from the service's view entirely.

        * networkctl will now show the .network and .link file
          networkd has applied to a specific interface.

        * sd-login gained a new API call sd_session_get_desktop() to
          query which desktop environment has been selected for a
          session.

        * UNIX utmp support is now compile-time optional to support
          legacy-free systems.

        * systemctl gained two new commands "add-wants" and
          "add-requires" for pulling in units from specific targets
          easily.

        * If the word "rescue" is specified on the kernel command line
          the system will now boot into rescue mode (aka
          rescue.target), which was previously available only by
          specifying "1" or "systemd.unit=rescue.target" on the kernel
          command line. This new kernel command line option nicely
          mirrors the already existing "emergency" kernel command line
          option.

        * New kernel command line options mount.usr=, mount.usrflags=,
          mount.usrfstype= have been added that match root=, rootflags=,
          rootfstype= but allow mounting a specific file system to
          /usr.

        * The $NOTIFY_SOCKET is now also passed to control processes of
          services, not only the main process.

        * This version reenables support for fsck's -l switch. This
          means at least version v2.25 of util-linux is required for
          operation, otherwise dead-locks on device nodes may
          occur. Again: you need to update util-linux to at least
          v2.25 when updating systemd to v217.

        * The "multi-seat-x" tool has been removed from systemd, as
          its functionality has been integrated into X servers 1.16,
          and the tool is hence redundant. It is recommended to update
          display managers invoking this tool to simply invoke X
          directly from now on, again.

        * Support for the new ALLOW_INTERACTIVE_AUTHORIZATION D-Bus
          message flag has been added for all of systemd's PolicyKit
          authenticated method calls has been added. In particular
          this now allows optional interactive authorization via
          PolicyKit for many of PID1's privileged operations such as
          unit file enabling and disabling.

        * "udevadm hwdb --update" learnt a new switch "--usr" for
          placing the rebuilt hardware database in /usr instead of
          /etc. When used only hardware database entries stored in
          /usr will be used, and any user database entries in /etc are
          ignored. This functionality is useful for vendors to ship a
          pre-built database on systems where local configuration is
          unnecessary or unlikely.

        * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now also
          understand the strings "semi-annually", "quarterly" and
          "minutely" as shortcuts (in addition to the preexisting
          "anually", "hourly", ...).

        * systemd-tmpfiles will now correctly create files in /dev
          at boot which are marked for creation only at boot. It is
          recommended to always create static device nodes with 'c!'
          and 'b!', so that they are created only at boot and not
          overwritten at runtime.

        * When the watchdog logic is used for a service (WatchdogSec=)
          and the watchdog timeout is hit the service will now be
          terminated with SIGABRT (instead of just SIGTERM), in order
          to make sure a proper coredump and backtrace is
          generated. This ensures that hanging services will result in
          similar coredump/backtrace behaviour as services that hit a
          segmentation fault.

        Contributions from: Andreas Henriksson, Andrei Borzenkov,
        Angus Gibson, Ansgar Burchardt, Ben Wolsieffer, Brandon L.
        Black, Christian Hesse, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch,
        Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dan Williams, Dave Reisner, David
        Herrmann, David Sommerseth, David Strauss, Emil Renner
        Berthing, Eric Cook, Evangelos Foutras, Filipe Brandenburger,
        Gustavo Sverzut Barbieri, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Hristo
        Venev, Hugo Grostabussiat, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Janssen, Jan
        Synacek, Jonathan Liu, Juho Son, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Klaus
        Purer, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz
        Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann,
        Marius Tessmann, Marko Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl,
        Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michael Scherer, Michal
        Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miroslav Lichvar, Patrik Flykt,
        Philippe De Swert, Piotr Drąg, Rahul Sundaram, Richard
        Weinberger, Robert Milasan, Ronny Chevalier, Ruben Kerkhof,
        Santiago Vila, Sergey Ptashnick, Simon McVittie, Sjoerd
        Simons, Stefan Brüns, Steven Allen, Steven Noonan, Susant
        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
        Timofey Titovets, Tobias Hunger, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
        Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-10-28

CHANGES WITH 216:

        * timedated no longer reads NTP implementation unit names from
          /usr/lib/systemd/ntp-units.d/*.list. Alternative NTP
          implementations should add a

            Conflicts=systemd-timesyncd.service

          to their unit files to take over and replace systemd's NTP
          default functionality.

        * systemd-sysusers gained a new line type "r" for configuring
          which UID/GID ranges to allocate system users/groups
          from. Lines of type "u" may now add an additional column
          that specifies the home directory for the system user to be
          created. Also, systemd-sysusers may now optionally read user
          information from STDIN instead of a file. This is useful for
          invoking it from RPM preinst scriptlets that need to create
          users before the first RPM file is installed since these
          files might need to be owned by them. A new
          %sysusers_create_inline RPM macro has been introduced to do
          just that. systemd-sysusers now updates the shadow files as
          well as the user/group databases, which should enhance
          compatibility with certain tools like grpck.

        * A number of bus APIs of PID 1 now optionally consult
          PolicyKit to permit access for otherwise unprivileged
          clients under certain conditions. Note that this currently
          doesn't support interactive authentication yet, but this is
          expected to be added eventually, too.

        * /etc/machine-info now has new fields for configuring the
          deployment environment of the machine, as well as the
          location of the machine. hostnamectl has been updated with
          new command to update these fields.

        * systemd-timesyncd has been updated to automatically acquire
          NTP server information from systemd-networkd, which might
          have been discovered via DHCP.

        * systemd-resolved now includes a caching DNS stub resolver
          and a complete LLMNR name resolution implementation. A new
          NSS module "nss-resolve" has been added which can be used
          instead of glibc's own "nss-dns" to resolve hostnames via
          systemd-resolved. Hostnames, addresses and arbitrary RRs may
          be resolved via systemd-resolved D-Bus APIs. In contrast to
          the glibc internal resolver systemd-resolved is aware of
          multi-homed system, and keeps DNS server and caches separate
          and per-interface. Queries are sent simultaneously on all
          interfaces that have DNS servers configured, in order to
          properly handle VPNs and local LANs which might resolve
          separate sets of domain names. systemd-resolved may acquire
          DNS server information from systemd-networkd automatically,
          which in turn might have discovered them via DHCP. A tool
          "systemd-resolve-host" has been added that may be used to
          query the DNS logic in resolved. systemd-resolved implements
          IDNA and automatically uses IDNA or UTF-8 encoding depending
          on whether classic DNS or LLMNR is used as transport. In the
          next releases we intend to add a DNSSEC and mDNS/DNS-SD
          implementation to systemd-resolved.

        * A new NSS module nss-mymachines has been added, that
          automatically resolves the names of all local registered
          containers to their respective IP addresses.

        * A new client tool "networkctl" for systemd-networkd has been
          added. It currently is entirely passive and will query
          networking configuration from udev, rtnetlink and networkd,
          and present it to the user in a very friendly
          way. Eventually, we hope to extend it to become a full
          control utility for networkd.

        * .socket units gained a new DeferAcceptSec= setting that
          controls the kernels' TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT sockopt for
          TCP. Similarly, support for controlling TCP keep-alive
          settings has been added (KeepAliveTimeSec=,
          KeepAliveIntervalSec=, KeepAliveProbes=). Also, support for
          turning off Nagle's algorithm on TCP has been added
          (NoDelay=).

        * logind learned a new session type "web", for use in projects
          like Cockpit which register web clients as PAM sessions.

        * timer units with at least one OnCalendar= setting will now
          be started only after time-sync.target has been
          reached. This way they will not elapse before the system
          clock has been corrected by a local NTP client or
          similar. This is particular useful on RTC-less embedded
          machines, that come up with an invalid system clock.

        * systemd-nspawn's --network-veth= switch should now result in
          stable MAC addresses for both the outer and the inner side
          of the link.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --volatile= switch for running
          container instances with /etc or /var unpopulated.

        * The kdbus client code has been updated to use the new Linux
          3.17 memfd subsystem instead of the old kdbus-specific one.

        * systemd-networkd's DHCP client and server now support
          FORCERENEW. There are also new configuration options to
          configure the vendor client identifier and broadcast mode
          for DHCP.

        * systemd will no longer inform the kernel about the current
          timezone, as this is necessarily incorrect and racy as the
          kernel has no understanding of DST and similar
          concepts. This hence means FAT timestamps will be always
          considered UTC, similar to what Android is already
          doing. Also, when the RTC is configured to the local time
          (rather than UTC) systemd will never synchronize back to it,
          as this might confuse Windows at a later boot.

        * systemd-analyze gained a new command "verify" for offline
          validation of unit files.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for a couple of additional
          settings for bonding networking setups. Also, the metric for
          statically configured routes may now be configured. For
          network interfaces where this is appropriate the peer IP
          address may now be configured.

        * systemd-networkd's DHCP client will no longer request
          broadcasting by default, as this tripped up some networks.
          For hardware where broadcast is required the feature should
          be switched back on using RequestBroadcast=yes.

        * systemd-networkd will now set up IPv4LL addresses (when
          enabled) even if DHCP is configured successfully.

        * udev will now default to respect network device names given
          by the kernel when the kernel indicates that these are
          predictable. This behavior can be tweaked by changing
          NamePolicy= in the relevant .link file.

        * A new library systemd-terminal has been added that
          implements full TTY stream parsing and rendering. This
          library is supposed to be used later on for implementing a
          full userspace VT subsystem, replacing the current kernel
          implementation.

        * A new tool systemd-journal-upload has been added to push
          journal data to a remote system running
          systemd-journal-remote.

        * journald will no longer forward all local data to another
          running syslog daemon. This change has been made because
          rsyslog (which appears to be the most commonly used syslog
          implementation these days) no longer makes use of this, and
          instead pulls the data out of the journal on its own. Since
          forwarding the messages to a non-existent syslog server is
          more expensive than we assumed we have now turned this
          off. If you run a syslog server that is not a recent rsyslog
          version, you have to turn this option on again
          (ForwardToSyslog= in journald.conf).

        * journald now optionally supports the LZ4 compressor for
          larger journal fields. This compressor should perform much
          better than XZ which was the previous default.

        * machinectl now shows the IP addresses of local containers,
          if it knows them, plus the interface name of the container.

        * A new tool "systemd-escape" has been added that makes it
          easy to escape strings to build unit names and similar.

        * sd_notify() messages may now include a new ERRNO= field
          which is parsed and collected by systemd and shown among the
          "systemctl status" output for a service.

        * A new component "systemd-firstboot" has been added that
          queries the most basic systemd information (timezone,
          hostname, root password) interactively on first
          boot. Alternatively it may also be used to provision these
          things offline on OS images installed into directories.

        * The default sysctl.d/ snippets will now set

                net.ipv4.conf.default.promote_secondaries=1

          This has the benefit of no flushing secondary IP addresses
          when primary addresses are removed.

        Contributions from: Ansgar Burchardt, Bastien Nocera, Colin
        Walters, Dan Dedrick, Daniel Buch, Daniel Korostil, Daniel
        Mack, Dan Williams, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Denis
        Kenzior, Eelco Dolstra, Eric Cook, Hannes Reinecke, Harald
        Hoyer, Hong Shick Pak, Hui Wang, Jean-André Santoni, Jóhann
        B. Guðmundsson, Jon Severinsson, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Kevin
        Wells, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael
        Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar,
        Miguel Angel Ajo, Mike Gilbert, Olivier Brunel, Robert
        Schiele, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie, Sjoerd Simons, Stef
        Walter, Steven Noonan, Susant Sahani, Tanu Kaskinen, Thomas
        Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Timofey Titovets,
        Tobias Geerinckx-Rice, Tomasz Torcz, Tom Gundersen, Umut
        Tezduyar Lindskog, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-08-19

CHANGES WITH 215:

        * A new tool systemd-sysusers has been added. This tool
          creates system users and groups in /etc/passwd and
          /etc/group, based on static declarative system user/group
          definitions in /usr/lib/sysusers.d/. This is useful to
          enable factory resets and volatile systems that boot up with
          an empty /etc directory, and thus need system users and
          groups created during early boot. systemd now also ships
          with two default sysusers.d/ files for the most basic
          users and groups systemd and the core operating system
          require.

        * A new tmpfiles snippet has been added that rebuilds the
          essential files in /etc on boot, should they be missing.

        * A directive for ensuring automatic clean-up of
          /var/cache/man/ has been removed from the default
          configuration. This line should now be shipped by the man
          implementation. The necessary change has been made to the
          man-db implementation. Note that you need to update your man
          implementation to one that ships this line, otherwise no
          automatic clean-up of /var/cache/man will take place.

        * A new condition ConditionNeedsUpdate= has been added that
          may conditionalize services to only run when /etc or /var
          are "older" than the vendor operating system resources in
          /usr. This is useful for reconstructing or updating /etc
          after an offline update of /usr or a factory reset, on the
          next reboot. Services that want to run once after such an
          update or reset should use this condition and order
          themselves before the new systemd-update-done.service, which
          will mark the two directories as fully updated. A number of
          service files have been added making use of this, to rebuild
          the udev hardware database, the journald message catalog and
          dynamic loader cache (ldconfig). The systemd-sysusers tool
          described above also makes use of this now. With this in
          place it is now possible to start up a minimal operating
          system with /etc empty cleanly. For more information on the
          concepts involved see this recent blog story:

          http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/stateless.html

        * A new system group "input" has been introduced, and all
          input device nodes get this group assigned. This is useful
          for system-level software to get access to input devices. It
          complements what is already done for "audio" and "video".

        * systemd-networkd learnt minimal DHCPv4 server support in
          addition to the existing DHCPv4 client support. It also
          learnt DHCPv6 client and IPv6 Router Solicitation client
          support. The DHCPv4 client gained support for static routes
          passed in from the server. Note that the [DHCPv4] section
          known in older systemd-networkd versions has been renamed to
          [DHCP] and is now also used by the DHCPv6 client. Existing
          .network files using settings of this section should be
          updated, though compatibility is maintained. Optionally, the
          client hostname may now be sent to the DHCP server.

        * networkd gained support for vxlan virtual networks as well
          as tun/tap and dummy devices.

        * networkd gained support for automatic allocation of address
          ranges for interfaces from a system-wide pool of
          addresses. This is useful for dynamically managing a large
          number of interfaces with a single network configuration
          file. In particular this is useful to easily assign
          appropriate IP addresses to the veth links of a large number
          of nspawn instances.

        * RPM macros for processing sysusers, sysctl and binfmt
          drop-in snippets at package installation time have been
          added.

        * The /etc/os-release file should now be placed in
          /usr/lib/os-release. The old location is automatically
          created as symlink. /usr/lib is the more appropriate
          location of this file, since it shall actually describe the
          vendor operating system shipped in /usr, and not the
          configuration stored in /etc.

        * .mount units gained a new boolean SloppyOptions= setting
          that maps to mount(8)'s -s option which enables permissive
          parsing of unknown mount options.

        * tmpfiles learnt a new "L+" directive which creates a symlink
          but (unlike "L") deletes a pre-existing file first, should
          it already exist and not already be the correct
          symlink. Similarly, "b+", "c+" and "p+" directives have been
          added as well, which create block and character devices, as
          well as fifos in the filesystem, possibly removing any
          pre-existing files of different types.

        * For tmpfiles' "L", "L+", "C" and "C+" directives the final
          'argument' field (which so far specified the source to
          symlink/copy the files from) is now optional. If omitted the
          same file os copied from /usr/share/factory/ suffixed by the
          full destination path. This is useful for populating /etc
          with essential files, by copying them from vendor defaults
          shipped in /usr/share/factory/etc.

        * A new command "systemctl preset-all" has been added that
          applies the service preset settings to all installed unit
          files. A new switch --preset-mode= has been added that
          controls whether only enable or only disable operations
          shall be executed.

        * A new command "systemctl is-system-running" has been added
          that allows checking the overall state of the system, for
          example whether it is fully up and running.

        * When the system boots up with an empty /etc, the equivalent
          to "systemctl preset-all" is executed during early boot, to
          make sure all default services are enabled after a factory
          reset.

        * systemd now contains a minimal preset file that enables the
          most basic services systemd ships by default.

        * Unit files' [Install] section gained a new DefaultInstance=
          field for defining the default instance to create if a
          template unit is enabled with no instance specified.

        * A new passive target cryptsetup-pre.target has been added
          that may be used by services that need to make they run and
          finish before the first LUKS cryptographic device is set up.

        * The /dev/loop-control and /dev/btrfs-control device nodes
          are now owned by the "disk" group by default, opening up
          access to this group.

        * systemd-coredump will now automatically generate a
          stack trace of all core dumps taking place on the system,
          based on elfutils' libdw library. This stack trace is logged
          to the journal.

        * systemd-coredump may now optionally store coredumps directly
          on disk (in /var/lib/systemd/coredump, possibly compressed),
          instead of storing them unconditionally in the journal. This
          mode is the new default. A new configuration file
          /etc/systemd/coredump.conf has been added to configure this
          and other parameters of systemd-coredump.

        * coredumpctl gained a new "info" verb to show details about a
          specific coredump. A new switch "-1" has also been added
          that makes sure to only show information about the most
          recent entry instead of all entries. Also, as the tool is
          generally useful now the "systemd-" prefix of the binary
          name has been removed. Distributions that want to maintain
          compatibility with the old name should add a symlink from
          the old name to the new name.

        * journald's SplitMode= now defaults to "uid". This makes sure
          that unprivileged users can access their own coredumps with
          coredumpctl without restrictions.

        * New kernel command line options "systemd.wants=" (for
          pulling an additional unit during boot), "systemd.mask="
          (for masking a specific unit for the boot), and
          "systemd.debug-shell" (for enabling the debug shell on tty9)
          have been added. This is implemented in the new generator
          "systemd-debug-generator".

        * systemd-nspawn will now by default filter a couple of
          syscalls for containers, among them those required for
          kernel module loading, direct x86 IO port access, swap
          management, and kexec. Most importantly though
          open_by_handle_at() is now prohibited for containers,
          closing a hole similar to a recently discussed vulnerability
          in docker regarding access to files on file hierarchies the
          container should normally not have access to. Note that, for
          nspawn, we generally make no security claims anyway (and
          this is explicitly documented in the man page), so this is
          just a fix for one of the most obvious problems.

        * A new man page file-hierarchy(7) has been added that
          contains a minimized, modernized version of the file system
          layout systemd expects, similar in style to the FHS
          specification or hier(5). A new tool systemd-path(1) has
          been added to query many of these paths for the local
          machine and user.

        * Automatic time-based clean-up of $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR is no
          longer done. Since the directory now has a per-user size
          limit, and is cleaned on logout this appears unnecessary,
          in particular since this now brings the lifecycle of this
          directory closer in line with how IPC objects are handled.

        * systemd.pc now exports a number of additional directories,
          including $libdir (which is useful to identify the library
          path for the primary architecture of the system), and a
          couple of drop-in directories.

        * udev's predictable network interface names now use the dev_port
          sysfs attribute, introduced in linux 3.15 instead of dev_id to
          distinguish between ports of the same PCI function. dev_id should
          only be used for ports using the same HW address, hence the need
          for dev_port.

        * machined has been updated to export the OS version of a
          container (read from /etc/os-release and
          /usr/lib/os-release) on the bus. This is now shown in
          "machinectl status" for a machine.

        * A new service setting RestartForceExitStatus= has been
          added. If configured to a set of exit signals or process
          return values, the service will be restarted when the main
          daemon process exits with any of them, regardless of the
          Restart= setting.

        * systemctl's -H switch for connecting to remote systemd
          machines has been extended so that it may be used to
          directly connect to a specific container on the
          host. "systemctl -H root@foobar:waldi" will now connect as
          user "root" to host "foobar", and then proceed directly to
          the container named "waldi". Note that currently you have to
          authenticate as user "root" for this to work, as entering
          containers is a privileged operation.

        Contributions from: Andreas Henriksson, Benjamin Steinwender,
        Carl Schaefer, Christian Hesse, Colin Ian King, Cristian
        Rodríguez, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Eugene
        Yakubovich, Filipe Brandenburger, Frederic Crozat, Hristo
        Venev, Jan Engelhardt, Jonathan Boulle, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine
        Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich,
        Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Michal Sekletar, Patrik Flykt, Ronan Le
        Martret, Ronny Chevalier, Ruediger Oertel, Steven Noonan,
        Susant Sahani, Thadeu Lima de Souza Cascardo, Thomas Hindoe
        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tom Hirst, Umut Tezduyar
        Lindskog, Uoti Urpala, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-07-03

CHANGES WITH 214:

        * As an experimental feature, udev now tries to lock the
          disk device node (flock(LOCK_SH|LOCK_NB)) while it
          executes events for the disk or any of its partitions.
          Applications like partitioning programs can lock the
          disk device node (flock(LOCK_EX)) and claim temporary
          device ownership that way; udev will entirely skip all event
          handling for this disk and its partitions. If the disk
          was opened for writing, the close will trigger a partition
          table rescan in udev's "watch" facility, and if needed
          synthesize "change" events for the disk and all its partitions.
          This is now unconditionally enabled, and if it turns out to
          cause major problems, we might turn it on only for specific
          devices, or might need to disable it entirely. Device Mapper
          devices are excluded from this logic.

        * We temporarily dropped the "-l" switch for fsck invocations,
          since they collide with the flock() logic above. util-linux
          upstream has been changed already to avoid this conflict,
          and we will readd "-l" as soon as util-linux with this
          change has been released.

        * The dependency on libattr has been removed. Since a long
          time, the extended attribute calls have moved to glibc, and
          libattr is thus unnecessary.

        * Virtualization detection works without privileges now. This
          means the systemd-detect-virt binary no longer requires
          CAP_SYS_PTRACE file capabilities, and our daemons can run
          with fewer privileges.

        * systemd-networkd now runs under its own "systemd-network"
          user. It retains the CAP_NET_ADMIN, CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE,
          CAP_NET_BROADCAST, CAP_NET_RAW capabilities though, but
          loses the ability to write to files owned by root this way.

        * Similarly, systemd-resolved now runs under its own
          "systemd-resolve" user with no capabilities remaining.

        * Similarly, systemd-bus-proxyd now runs under its own
          "systemd-bus-proxy" user with only CAP_IPC_OWNER remaining.

        * systemd-networkd gained support for setting up "veth"
          virtual Ethernet devices for container connectivity, as well
          as GRE and VTI tunnels.

        * systemd-networkd will no longer automatically attempt to
          manually load kernel modules necessary for certain tunnel
          transports. Instead, it is assumed the kernel loads them
          automatically when required. This only works correctly on
          very new kernels. On older kernels, please consider adding
          the kernel modules to /etc/modules-load.d/ as a work-around.

        * The resolv.conf file systemd-resolved generates has been
          moved to /run/systemd/resolve/. If you have a symlink from
          /etc/resolv.conf, it might be necessary to correct it.

        * Two new service settings, ProtectHome= and ProtectSystem=,
          have been added. When enabled, they will make the user data
          (such as /home) inaccessible or read-only and the system
          (such as /usr) read-only, for specific services. This allows
          very light-weight per-service sandboxing to avoid
          modifications of user data or system files from
          services. These two new switches have been enabled for all
          of systemd's long-running services, where appropriate.

        * Socket units gained new SocketUser= and SocketGroup=
          settings to set the owner user and group of AF_UNIX sockets
          and FIFOs in the file system.

        * Socket units gained a new RemoveOnStop= setting. If enabled,
          all FIFOS and sockets in the file system will be removed
          when the specific socket unit is stopped.

        * Socket units gained a new Symlinks= setting. It takes a list
          of symlinks to create to file system sockets or FIFOs
          created by the specific Unix sockets. This is useful to
          manage symlinks to socket nodes with the same life-cycle as
          the socket itself.

        * The /dev/log socket and /dev/initctl FIFO have been moved to
          /run, and have been replaced by symlinks. This allows
          connecting to these facilities even if PrivateDevices=yes is
          used for a service (which makes /dev/log itself unavailable,
          but /run is left). This also has the benefit of ensuring
          that /dev only contains device nodes, directories and
          symlinks, and nothing else.

        * sd-daemon gained two new calls sd_pid_notify() and
          sd_pid_notifyf(). They are similar to sd_notify() and
          sd_notifyf(), but allow overriding of the source PID of
          notification messages if permissions permit this. This is
          useful to send notify messages on behalf of a different
          process (for example, the parent process). The
          systemd-notify tool has been updated to make use of this
          when sending messages (so that notification messages now
          originate from the shell script invoking systemd-notify and
          not the systemd-notify process itself. This should minimize
          a race where systemd fails to associate notification
          messages to services when the originating process already
          vanished.

        * A new "on-abnormal" setting for Restart= has been added. If
          set, it will result in automatic restarts on all "abnormal"
          reasons for a process to exit, which includes unclean
          signals, core dumps, timeouts and watchdog timeouts, but
          does not include clean and unclean exit codes or clean
          signals. Restart=on-abnormal is an alternative for
          Restart=on-failure for services that shall be able to
          terminate and avoid restarts on certain errors, by
          indicating so with an unclean exit code. Restart=on-failure
          or Restart=on-abnormal is now the recommended setting for
          all long-running services.

        * If the InaccessibleDirectories= service setting points to a
          mount point (or if there are any submounts contained within
          it), it is now attempted to completely unmount it, to make
          the file systems truly unavailable for the respective
          service.

        * The ReadOnlyDirectories= service setting and
          systemd-nspawn's --read-only parameter are now recursively
          applied to all submounts, too.

        * Mount units may now be created transiently via the bus APIs.

        * The support for SysV and LSB init scripts has been removed
          from the systemd daemon itself. Instead, it is now
          implemented as a generator that creates native systemd units
          from these scripts when needed. This enables us to remove a
          substantial amount of legacy code from PID 1, following the
          fact that many distributions only ship a very small number
          of LSB/SysV init scripts nowadays.

        * Privileged Xen (dom0) domains are not considered
          virtualization anymore by the virtualization detection
          logic. After all, they generally have unrestricted access to
          the hardware and usually are used to manage the unprivileged
          (domU) domains.

        * systemd-tmpfiles gained a new "C" line type, for copying
          files or entire directories.

        * systemd-tmpfiles "m" lines are now fully equivalent to "z"
          lines. So far, they have been non-globbing versions of the
          latter, and have thus been redundant. In future, it is
          recommended to only use "z". "m" has hence been removed
          from the documentation, even though it stays supported.

        * A tmpfiles snippet to recreate the most basic structure in
          /var has been added. This is enough to create the /var/run →
          /run symlink and create a couple of structural
          directories. This allows systems to boot up with an empty or
          volatile /var. Of course, while with this change, the core OS
          now is capable with dealing with a volatile /var, not all
          user services are ready for it. However, we hope that sooner
          or later, many service daemons will be changed upstream so
          that they are able to automatically create their necessary
          directories in /var at boot, should they be missing. This is
          the first step to allow state-less systems that only require
          the vendor image for /usr to boot.

        * systemd-nspawn has gained a new --tmpfs= switch to mount an
          empty tmpfs instance to a specific directory. This is
          particularly useful for making use of the automatic
          reconstruction of /var (see above), by passing --tmpfs=/var.

        * Access modes specified in tmpfiles snippets may now be
          prefixed with "~", which indicates that they shall be masked
          by whether the existing file or directory is currently
          writable, readable or executable at all. Also, if specified,
          the sgid/suid/sticky bits will be masked for all
          non-directories.

        * A new passive target unit "network-pre.target" has been
          added which is useful for services that shall run before any
          network is configured, for example firewall scripts.

        * The "floppy" group that previously owned the /dev/fd*
          devices is no longer used. The "disk" group is now used
          instead. Distributions should probably deprecate usage of
          this group.

        Contributions from: Camilo Aguilar, Christian Hesse, Colin Ian
        King, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Dave Reisner, David
        Strauss, Denis Tikhomirov, John, Jonathan Liu, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Mantas Mikulėnas, Mark Eichin, Ronny
        Chevalier, Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-06-11

CHANGES WITH 213:

        * A new "systemd-timesyncd" daemon has been added for
          synchronizing the system clock across the network. It
          implements an SNTP client. In contrast to NTP
          implementations such as chrony or the NTP reference server,
          this only implements a client side, and does not bother with
          the full NTP complexity, focusing only on querying time from
          one remote server and synchronizing the local clock to
          it. Unless you intend to serve NTP to networked clients or
          want to connect to local hardware clocks, this simple NTP
          client should be more than appropriate for most
          installations. The daemon runs with minimal privileges, and
          has been hooked up with networkd to only operate when
          network connectivity is available. The daemon saves the
          current clock to disk every time a new NTP sync has been
          acquired, and uses this to possibly correct the system clock
          early at bootup, in order to accommodate for systems that
          lack an RTC such as the Raspberry Pi and embedded devices,
          and to make sure that time monotonically progresses on these
          systems, even if it is not always correct. To make use of
          this daemon, a new system user and group "systemd-timesync"
          needs to be created on installation of systemd.

        * The queue "seqnum" interface of libudev has been disabled, as
          it was generally incompatible with device namespacing as
          sequence numbers of devices go "missing" if the devices are
          part of a different namespace.

        * "systemctl list-timers" and "systemctl list-sockets" gained
          a --recursive switch for showing units of these types also
          for all local containers, similar in style to the already
          supported --recursive switch for "systemctl list-units".

        * A new RebootArgument= setting has been added for service
          units, which may be used to specify a kernel reboot argument
          to use when triggering reboots with StartLimitAction=.

        * A new FailureAction= setting has been added for service
          units which may be used to specify an operation to trigger
          when a service fails. This works similarly to
          StartLimitAction=, but unlike it, controls what is done
          immediately rather than only after several attempts to
          restart the service in question.

        * hostnamed got updated to also expose the kernel name,
          release, and version on the bus. This is useful for
          executing commands like hostnamectl with the -H switch.
          systemd-analyze makes use of this to properly display
          details when running non-locally.

        * The bootchart tool can now show cgroup information in the
          graphs it generates.

        * The CFS CPU quota cgroup attribute is now exposed for
          services. The new CPUQuota= switch has been added for this
          which takes a percentage value. Setting this will have the
          result that a service may never get more CPU time than the
          specified percentage, even if the machine is otherwise idle.

        * systemd-networkd learned IPIP and SIT tunnel support.

        * LSB init scripts exposing a dependency on $network will now
          get a dependency on network-online.target rather than simply
          network.target. This should bring LSB handling closer to
          what it was on SysV systems.

        * A new fsck.repair= kernel option has been added to control
          how fsck shall deal with unclean file systems at boot.

        * The (.ini) configuration file parser will now silently
          ignore sections whose name begins with "X-". This may be
          used to maintain application-specific extension sections in unit
          files.

        * machined gained a new API to query the IP addresses of
          registered containers. "machinectl status" has been updated
          to show these addresses in its output.

        * A new call sd_uid_get_display() has been added to the
          sd-login APIs for querying the "primary" session of a
          user. The "primary" session of the user is elected from the
          user's sessions and generally a graphical session is
          preferred over a text one.

        * A minimal systemd-resolved daemon has been added. It
          currently simply acts as a companion to systemd-networkd and
          manages resolv.conf based on per-interface DNS
          configuration, possibly supplied via DHCP. In the long run
          we hope to extend this into a local DNSSEC enabled DNS and
          mDNS cache.

        * The systemd-networkd-wait-online tool is now enabled by
          default. It will delay network-online.target until a network
          connection has been configured. The tool primarily integrates
          with networkd, but will also make a best effort to make sense
          of network configuration performed in some other way.

        * Two new service options StartupCPUShares= and
          StartupBlockIOWeight= have been added that work similarly to
          CPUShares= and BlockIOWeight= however only apply during
          system startup. This is useful to prioritize certain services
          differently during bootup than during normal runtime.

        * hostnamed has been changed to prefer the statically
          configured hostname in /etc/hostname (unless set to
          'localhost' or empty) over any dynamic one supplied by
          dhcp. With this change, the rules for picking the hostname
          match more closely the rules of other configuration settings
          where the local administrator's configuration in /etc always
          overrides any other settings.

        Contributions fron: Ali H. Caliskan, Alison Chaiken, Bas van
        den Berg, Brandon Philips, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch,
        Dan Kilman, Dave Reisner, David Härdeman, David Herrmann,
        David Strauss, Dimitris Spingos, Djalal Harouni, Eelco
        Dolstra, Evan Nemerson, Florian Albrechtskirchinger, Greg
        Kroah-Hartman, Harald Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan
        Engelhardt, Jani Nikula, Jason St. John, Jeffrey Clark,
        Jonathan Boulle, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas
        Nykryn, Lukasz Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael
        Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Nis
        Martensen, Patrik Flykt, Philip Lorenz, poma, Ray Strode,
        Reyad Attiyat, Robert Milasan, Scott Thrasher, Stef Walter,
        Steven Siloti, Susant Sahani, Tanu Kaskinen, Thomas Bächler,
        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar
        Lindskog, WaLyong Cho, Will Woods, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Beijing, 2014-05-28

CHANGES WITH 212:

        * When restoring the screen brightness at boot, stay away from
          the darkest setting or from the lowest 5% of the available
          range, depending on which is the larger value of both. This
          should effectively protect the user from rebooting into a
          black screen, should the brightness have been set to minimum
          by accident.

        * sd-login gained a new sd_machine_get_class() call to
          determine the class ("vm" or "container") of a machine
          registered with machined.

        * sd-login gained new calls
          sd_peer_get_{session,owner_uid,unit,user_unit,slice,machine_name}(),
          to query the identity of the peer of a local AF_UNIX
          connection. They operate similarly to their sd_pid_get_xyz()
          counterparts.

        * PID 1 will now maintain a system-wide system state engine
          with the states "starting", "running", "degraded",
          "maintenance", "stopping". These states are bound to system
          startup, normal runtime, runtime with at least one failed
          service, rescue/emergency mode and system shutdown. This
          state is shown in the "systemctl status" output when no unit
          name is passed. It is useful to determine system state, in
          particularly when doing so for many systems or containers at
          once.

        * A new command "list-machines" has been added to "systemctl"
          that lists all local OS containers and shows their system
          state (see above), if systemd runs inside of them.

        * systemctl gained a new "-r" switch to recursively enumerate
          units on all local containers, when used with the
          "list-unit" command (which is the default one that is
          executed when no parameters are specified).

        * The GPT automatic partition discovery logic will now honour
          two GPT partition flags: one may be set on a partition to
          cause it to be mounted read-only, and the other may be set
          on a partition to ignore it during automatic discovery.

        * Two new GPT type UUIDs have been added for automatic root
          partition discovery, for 32-bit and 64-bit ARM. This is not
          particularly useful for discovering the root directory on
          these architectures during bare-metal boots (since UEFI is
          not common there), but still very useful to allow booting of
          ARM disk images in nspawn with the -i option.

        * MAC addresses of interfaces created with nspawn's
          --network-interface= switch will now be generated from the
          machine name, and thus be stable between multiple invocations
          of the container.

        * logind will now automatically remove all IPC objects owned
          by a user if she or he fully logs out. This makes sure that
          users who are logged out cannot continue to consume IPC
          resources. This covers SysV memory, semaphores and message
          queues as well as POSIX shared memory and message
          queues. Traditionally, SysV and POSIX IPC had no life-cycle
          limits. With this functionality, that is corrected. This may
          be turned off by using the RemoveIPC= switch of logind.conf.

        * The systemd-machine-id-setup and tmpfiles tools gained a
          --root= switch to operate on a specific root directory,
          instead of /.

        * journald can now forward logged messages to the TTYs of all
          logged in users ("wall"). This is the default for all
          emergency messages now.

        * A new tool systemd-journal-remote has been added to stream
          journal log messages across the network.

        * /sys/fs/cgroup/ is now mounted read-only after all cgroup
          controller trees are mounted into it. Note that the
          directories mounted beneath it are not read-only. This is a
          security measure and is particularly useful because glibc
          actually includes a search logic to pick any tmpfs it can
          find to implement shm_open() if /dev/shm is not available
          (which it might very well be in namespaced setups).

        * machinectl gained a new "poweroff" command to cleanly power
          down a local OS container.

        * The PrivateDevices= unit file setting will now also drop the
          CAP_MKNOD capability from the capability bound set, and
          imply DevicePolicy=closed.

        * PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork= and PrivateTmp= is now used
          comprehensively on all long-running systemd services where
          this is appropriate.

        * systemd-udevd will now run in a disassociated mount
          namespace. To mount directories from udev rules, make sure to
          pull in mount units via SYSTEMD_WANTS properties.

        * The kdbus support gained support for uploading policy into
          the kernel. sd-bus gained support for creating "monitoring"
          connections that can eavesdrop into all bus communication
          for debugging purposes.

        * Timestamps may now be specified in seconds since the UNIX
          epoch Jan 1st, 1970 by specifying "@" followed by the value
          in seconds.

        * Native tcpwrap support in systemd has been removed. tcpwrap
          is old code, not really maintained anymore and has serious
          shortcomings, and better options such as firewalls
          exist. For setups that require tcpwrap usage, please
          consider invoking your socket-activated service via tcpd,
          like on traditional inetd.

        * A new system.conf configuration option
          DefaultTimerAccuracySec= has been added that controls the
          default AccuracySec= setting of .timer units.

        * Timer units gained a new WakeSystem= switch. If enabled,
          timers configured this way will cause the system to resume
          from system suspend (if the system supports that, which most
          do these days).

        * Timer units gained a new Persistent= switch. If enabled,
          timers configured this way will save to disk when they have
          been last triggered. This information is then used on next
          reboot to possible execute overdue timer events, that
          could not take place because the system was powered off.
          This enables simple anacron-like behaviour for timer units.

        * systemctl's "list-timers" will now also list the time a
          timer unit was last triggered in addition to the next time
          it will be triggered.

        * systemd-networkd will now assign predictable IPv4LL
          addresses to its local interfaces.

        Contributions from: Brandon Philips, Daniel Buch, Daniel Mack,
        Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gerd Hoffmann, Greg
        Kroah-Hartman, Hendrik Brueckner, Jason St. John, Josh
        Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Marc-Antoine
        Perennou, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Miklos Vajna,
        Patrik Flykt, poma, Sebastian Thorarensen, Thomas Bächler,
        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tomasz Torcz, Tom Gundersen,
        Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Wieland Hoffmann, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-03-25

CHANGES WITH 211:

        * A new unit file setting RestrictAddressFamilies= has been
          added to restrict which socket address families unit
          processes gain access to. This takes address family names
          like "AF_INET" or "AF_UNIX", and is useful to minimize the
          attack surface of services via exotic protocol stacks. This
          is built on seccomp system call filters.

        * Two new unit file settings RuntimeDirectory= and
          RuntimeDirectoryMode= have been added that may be used to
          manage a per-daemon runtime directories below /run. This is
          an alternative for setting up directory permissions with
          tmpfiles snippets, and has the advantage that the runtime
          directory's lifetime is bound to the daemon runtime and that
          the daemon starts up with an empty directory each time. This
          is particularly useful when writing services that drop
          privileges using the User= or Group= setting.

        * The DeviceAllow= unit setting now supports globbing for
          matching against device group names.

        * The systemd configuration file system.conf gained new
          settings DefaultCPUAccounting=, DefaultBlockIOAccounting=,
          DefaultMemoryAccounting= to globally turn on/off accounting
          for specific resources (cgroups) for all units. These
          settings may still be overridden individually in each unit
          though.

        * systemd-gpt-auto-generator is now able to discover /srv and
          root partitions in addition to /home and swap partitions. It
          also supports LUKS-encrypted partitions now. With this in
          place, automatic discovery of partitions to mount following
          the Discoverable Partitions Specification
          (https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Specifications/DiscoverablePartitionsSpec)
          is now a lot more complete. This allows booting without
          /etc/fstab and without root= on the kernel command line on
          systems prepared appropriately.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --image= switch which allows
          booting up disk images and Linux installations on any block
          device that follow the Discoverable Partitions Specification
          (see above). This means that installations made with
          appropriately updated installers may now be started and
          deployed using container managers, completely
          unmodified. (We hope that libvirt-lxc will add support for
          this feature soon, too.)

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-macvlan= setting to
          set up a private macvlan interface for the
          container. Similarly, systemd-networkd gained a new
          Kind=macvlan setting in .netdev files.

        * systemd-networkd now supports configuring local addresses
          using IPv4LL.

        * A new tool systemd-network-wait-online has been added to
          synchronously wait for network connectivity using
          systemd-networkd.

        * The sd-bus.h bus API gained a new sd_bus_track object for
          tracking the life-cycle of bus peers. Note that sd-bus.h is
          still not a public API though (unless you specify
          --enable-kdbus on the configure command line, which however
          voids your warranty and you get no API stability guarantee).

        * The $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR runtime directories for each user are
          now individual tmpfs instances, which has the benefit of
          introducing separate pools for each user, with individual
          size limits, and thus making sure that unprivileged clients
          can no longer negatively impact the system or other users by
          filling up their $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR. A new logind.conf setting
          RuntimeDirectorySize= has been introduced that allows
          controlling the default size limit for all users. It
          defaults to 10% of the available physical memory. This is no
          replacement for quotas on tmpfs though (which the kernel
          still does not support), as /dev/shm and /tmp are still
          shared resources used by both the system and unprivileged
          users.

        * logind will now automatically turn off automatic suspending
          on laptop lid close when more than one display is
          connected. This was previously expected to be implemented
          individually in desktop environments (such as GNOME),
          however has been added to logind now, in order to fix a
          boot-time race where a desktop environment might not have
          been started yet and thus not been able to take an inhibitor
          lock at the time where logind already suspends the system
          due to a closed lid.

        * logind will now wait at least 30s after each system
          suspend/resume cycle, and 3min after system boot before
          suspending the system due to a closed laptop lid. This
          should give USB docking stations and similar enough time to
          be probed and configured after system resume and boot in
          order to then act as suspend blocker.

        * systemd-run gained a new --property= setting which allows
          initialization of resource control properties (and others)
          for the created scope or service unit. Example: "systemd-run
          --property=BlockIOWeight=10 updatedb" may be used to run
          updatedb at a low block IO scheduling weight.

        * systemd-run's --uid=, --gid=, --setenv=, --setenv= switches
          now also work in --scope mode.

        * When systemd is compiled with kdbus support, basic support
          for enforced policies is now in place. (Note that enabling
          kdbus still voids your warranty and no API compatibility
          promises are made.)

        Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Ansgar Burchardt, Armin
        K., Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni,
        Harald Hoyer, Henrik Grindal Bakken, Jasper St. Pierre, Kay
        Sievers, Kieran Clancy, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn,
        Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Mark Oteiza, Martin Pitt,
        Mike Gilbert, Peter Rajnoha, poma, Samuli Suominen, Stef
        Walter, Susant Sahani, Tero Roponen, Thomas Andersen, Thomas
        Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tomasz Torcz, Tom
        Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Uoti Urpala, Zachary Cook,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-03-12

CHANGES WITH 210:

        * systemd will now relabel /dev after loading the SMACK policy
          according to SMACK rules.

        * A new unit file option AppArmorProfile= has been added to
          set the AppArmor profile for the processes of a unit.

        * A new condition check ConditionArchitecture= has been added
          to conditionalize units based on the system architecture, as
          reported by uname()'s "machine" field.

        * systemd-networkd now supports matching on the system
          virtualization, architecture, kernel command line, host name
          and machine ID.

        * logind is now a lot more aggressive when suspending the
          machine due to a closed laptop lid. Instead of acting only
          on the lid close action, it will continuously watch the lid
          status and act on it. This is useful for laptops where the
          power button is on the outside of the chassis so that it can
          be reached without opening the lid (such as the Lenovo
          Yoga). On those machines, logind will now immediately
          re-suspend the machine if the power button has been
          accidentally pressed while the laptop was suspended and in a
          backpack or similar.

        * logind will now watch SW_DOCK switches and inhibit reaction
          to the lid switch if it is pressed. This means that logind
          will not suspend the machine anymore if the lid is closed
          and the system is docked, if the laptop supports SW_DOCK
          notifications via the input layer. Note that ACPI docking
          stations do not generate this currently. Also note that this
          logic is usually not fully sufficient and Desktop
          Environments should take a lid switch inhibitor lock when an
          external display is connected, as systemd will not watch
          this on its own.

        * nspawn will now make use of the devices cgroup controller by
          default, and only permit creation of and access to the usual
          API device nodes like /dev/null or /dev/random, as well as
          access to (but not creation of) the pty devices.

        * We will now ship a default .network file for
          systemd-networkd that automatically configures DHCP for
          network interfaces created by nspawn's --network-veth or
          --network-bridge= switches.

        * systemd will now understand the usual M, K, G, T suffixes
          according to SI conventions (i.e. to the base 1000) when
          referring to throughput and hardware metrics. It will stay
          with IEC conventions (i.e. to the base 1024) for software
          metrics, according to what is customary according to
          Wikipedia. We explicitly document which base applies for
          each configuration option.

        * The DeviceAllow= setting in unit files now supports a syntax
          to whitelist an entire group of devices node majors at once,
          based on the /proc/devices listing. For example, with the
          string "char-pts", it is now possible to whitelist all
          current and future pseudo-TTYs at once.

        * sd-event learned a new "post" event source. Event sources of
          this type are triggered by the dispatching of any event
          source of a type that is not "post". This is useful for
          implementing clean-up and check event sources that are
          triggered by other work being done in the program.

        * systemd-networkd is no longer statically enabled, but uses
          the usual [Install] sections so that it can be
          enabled/disabled using systemctl. It still is enabled by
          default however.

        * When creating a veth interface pair with systemd-nspawn, the
          host side will now be prefixed with "vb-" if
          --network-bridge= is used, and with "ve-" if --network-veth
          is used. This way, it is easy to distinguish these cases on
          the host, for example to apply different configuration to
          them with systemd-networkd.

        * The compatibility libraries for libsystemd-journal.so,
          libsystem-id128.so, libsystemd-login.so and
          libsystemd-daemon.so do not make use of IFUNC
          anymore. Instead, we now build libsystemd.so multiple times
          under these alternative names. This means that the footprint
          is drastically increased, but given that these are
          transitional compatibility libraries, this should not matter
          much. This change has been made necessary to support the ARM
          platform for these compatibility libraries, as the ARM
          toolchain is not really at the same level as the toolchain
          for other architectures like x86 and does not support
          IFUNC. Please make sure to use --enable-compat-libs only
          during a transitional period!

        Contributions from: Andreas Fuchs, Armin K., Colin Walters,
        Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni,
        Holger Schurig, Jason A. Donenfeld, Jason St. John, Jasper
        St. Pierre, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Łukasz Stelmach,
        Marcel Holtmann, Michael Scherer, Michal Sekletar, Mike
        Gilbert, Samuli Suominen, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe
        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-02-24

CHANGES WITH 209:

        * A new component "systemd-networkd" has been added that can
          be used to configure local network interfaces statically or
          via DHCP. It is capable of bringing up bridges, VLANs, and
          bonding. Currently, no hook-ups for interactive network
          configuration are provided. Use this for your initrd,
          container, embedded, or server setup if you need a simple,
          yet powerful, network configuration solution. This
          configuration subsystem is quite nifty, as it allows wildcard
          hotplug matching in interfaces. For example, with a single
          configuration snippet, you can configure that all Ethernet
          interfaces showing up are automatically added to a bridge,
          or similar. It supports link-sensing and more.

        * A new tool "systemd-socket-proxyd" has been added which can
          act as a bidirectional proxy for TCP sockets. This is
          useful for adding socket activation support to services that
          do not actually support socket activation, including virtual
          machines and the like.

        * Add a new tool to save/restore rfkill state on
          shutdown/boot.

        * Save/restore state of keyboard backlights in addition to
          display backlights on shutdown/boot.

        * udev learned a new SECLABEL{} construct to label device
          nodes with a specific security label when they appear. For
          now, only SECLABEL{selinux} is supported, but the syntax is
          prepared for additional security frameworks.

        * udev gained a new scheme to configure link-level attributes
          from files in /etc/systemd/network/*.link. These files can
          match against MAC address, device path, driver name and type,
          and will apply attributes like the naming policy, link speed,
          MTU, duplex settings, Wake-on-LAN settings, MAC address, MAC
          address assignment policy (randomized, ...).

        * The configuration of network interface naming rules for
          "permanent interface names" has changed: a new NamePolicy=
          setting in the [Link] section of .link files determines the
          priority of possible naming schemes (onboard, slot, MAC,
          path). The default value of this setting is determined by
          /usr/lib/net/links/99-default.link. Old
          80-net-name-slot.rules udev configuration file has been
          removed, so local configuration overriding this file should
          be adapted to override 99-default.link instead.

        * When the User= switch is used in a unit file, also
          initialize $SHELL= based on the user database entry.

        * systemd no longer depends on libdbus. All communication is
          now done with sd-bus, systemd's low-level bus library
          implementation.

        * kdbus support has been added to PID 1 itself. When kdbus is
          enabled, this causes PID 1 to set up the system bus and
          enable support for a new ".busname" unit type that
          encapsulates bus name activation on kdbus. It works a little
          bit like ".socket" units, except for bus names. A new
          generator has been added that converts classic dbus1 service
          activation files automatically into native systemd .busname
          and .service units.

        * sd-bus: add a light-weight vtable implementation that allows
          defining objects on the bus with a simple static const
          vtable array of its methods, signals and properties.

        * systemd will not generate or install static dbus
          introspection data anymore to /usr/share/dbus-1/interfaces,
          as the precise format of these files is unclear, and
          nothing makes use of it.

        * A proxy daemon is now provided to proxy clients connecting
          via classic D-Bus AF_UNIX sockets to kdbus, to provide full
          compatibility with classic D-Bus.

        * A bus driver implementation has been added that supports the
          classic D-Bus bus driver calls on kdbus, also for
          compatibility purposes.

        * A new API "sd-event.h" has been added that implements a
          minimal event loop API built around epoll. It provides a
          couple of features that direct epoll usage is lacking:
          prioritization of events, scales to large numbers of timer
          events, per-event timer slack (accuracy), system-wide
          coalescing of timer events, exit handlers, watchdog
          supervision support using systemd's sd_notify() API, child
          process handling.

        * A new API "sd-rntl.h" has been added that provides an API
          around the route netlink interface of the kernel, similar in
          style to "sd-bus.h".

        * A new API "sd-dhcp-client.h" has been added that provides a
          small DHCPv4 client-side implementation. This is used by
          "systemd-networkd".

        * There is a new kernel command line option
          "systemd.restore_state=0|1". When set to "0", none of the
          systemd tools will restore saved runtime state to hardware
          devices. More specifically, the rfkill and backlight states
          are not restored.

        * The FsckPassNo= compatibility option in mount/service units
          has been removed. The fstab generator will now add the
          necessary dependencies automatically, and does not require
          PID1's support for that anymore.

        * journalctl gained a new switch, --list-boots, that lists
          recent boots with their times and boot IDs.

        * The various tools like systemctl, loginctl, timedatectl,
          busctl, systemd-run, ... have gained a new switch "-M" to
          connect to a specific, local OS container (as direct
          connection, without requiring SSH). This works on any
          container that is registered with machined, such as those
          created by libvirt-lxc or nspawn.

        * systemd-run and systemd-analyze also gained support for "-H"
          to connect to remote hosts via SSH. This is particularly
          useful for systemd-run because it enables queuing of jobs
          onto remote systems.

        * machinectl gained a new command "login" to open a getty
          login in any local container. This works with any container
          that is registered with machined (such as those created by
          libvirt-lxc or nspawn), and which runs systemd inside.

        * machinectl gained a new "reboot" command that may be used to
          trigger a reboot on a specific container that is registered
          with machined. This works on any container that runs an init
          system of some kind.

        * systemctl gained a new "list-timers" command to print a nice
          listing of installed timer units with the times they elapse
          next.

        * Alternative reboot() parameters may now be specified on the
          "systemctl reboot" command line and are passed to the
          reboot() system call.

        * systemctl gained a new --job-mode= switch to configure the
          mode to queue a job with. This is a more generic version of
          --fail, --irreversible, and --ignore-dependencies, which are
          still available but not advertised anymore.

        * /etc/systemd/system.conf gained new settings to configure
          various default timeouts of units, as well as the default
          start limit interval and burst. These may still be overridden
          within each Unit.

        * PID1 will now export on the bus profile data of the security
          policy upload process (such as the SELinux policy upload to
          the kernel).

        * journald: when forwarding logs to the console, include
          timestamps (following the setting in
          /sys/module/printk/parameters/time).

        * OnCalendar= in timer units now understands the special
          strings "yearly" and "annually". (Both are equivalent)

        * The accuracy of timer units is now configurable with the new
          AccuracySec= setting. It defaults to 1min.

        * A new dependency type JoinsNamespaceOf= has been added that
          allows running two services within the same /tmp and network
          namespace, if PrivateNetwork= or PrivateTmp= are used.

        * A new command "cat" has been added to systemctl. It outputs
          the original unit file of a unit, and concatenates the
          contents of additional "drop-in" unit file snippets, so that
          the full configuration is shown.

        * systemctl now supports globbing on the various "list-xyz"
          commands, like "list-units" or "list-sockets", as well as on
          those commands which take multiple unit names.

        * journalctl's --unit= switch gained support for globbing.

        * All systemd daemons now make use of the watchdog logic so
          that systemd automatically notices when they hang.

        * If the $container_ttys environment variable is set,
          getty-generator will automatically spawn a getty for each
          listed tty. This is useful for container managers to request
          login gettys to be spawned on as many ttys as needed.

        * %h, %s, %U specifier support is not available anymore when
          used in unit files for PID 1. This is because NSS calls are
          not safe from PID 1. They stay available for --user
          instances of systemd, and as special case for the root user.

        * loginctl gained a new "--no-legend" switch to turn off output
          of the legend text.

        * The "sd-login.h" API gained three new calls:
          sd_session_is_remote(), sd_session_get_remote_user(),
          sd_session_get_remote_host() to query information about
          remote sessions.

        * The udev hardware database now also carries vendor/product
          information of SDIO devices.

        * The "sd-daemon.h" API gained a new sd_watchdog_enabled() to
          determine whether watchdog notifications are requested by
          the system manager.

        * Socket-activated per-connection services now include a
          short description of the connection parameters in the
          description.

        * tmpfiles gained a new "--boot" option. When this is not used,
          only lines where the command character is not suffixed with
          "!" are executed. When this option is specified, those
          options are executed too. This partitions tmpfiles
          directives into those that can be safely executed at any
          time, and those which should be run only at boot (for
          example, a line that creates /run/nologin).

        * A new API "sd-resolve.h" has been added which provides a simple
          asynchronous wrapper around glibc NSS host name resolution
          calls, such as getaddrinfo(). In contrast to glibc's
          getaddrinfo_a(), it does not use signals. In contrast to most
          other asynchronous name resolution libraries, this one does
          not reimplement DNS, but reuses NSS, so that alternate
          host name resolution systems continue to work, such as mDNS,
          LDAP, etc. This API is based on libasyncns, but it has been
          cleaned up for inclusion in systemd.

        * The APIs "sd-journal.h", "sd-login.h", "sd-id128.h",
          "sd-daemon.h" are no longer found in individual libraries
          libsystemd-journal.so, libsystemd-login.so,
          libsystemd-id128.so, libsystemd-daemon.so. Instead, we have
          merged them into a single library, libsystemd.so, which
          provides all symbols. The reason for this is cyclic
          dependencies, as these libraries tend to use each other's
          symbols. So far, we have managed to workaround that by linking
          a copy of a good part of our code into each of these
          libraries again and again, which, however, makes certain
          things hard to do, like sharing static variables. Also, it
          substantially increases footprint. With this change, there
          is only one library for the basic APIs systemd
          provides. Also, "sd-bus.h", "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h",
          "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h", "sd-utf8.h" are found in this
          library as well, however are subject to the --enable-kdbus
          switch (see below). Note that "sd-dhcp-client.h" is not part
          of this library (this is because it only consumes, never
          provides, services of/to other APIs). To make the transition
          easy from the separate libraries to the unified one, we
          provide the --enable-compat-libs compile-time switch which
          will generate stub libraries that are compatible with the
          old ones but redirect all calls to the new one.

        * All of the kdbus logic and the new APIs "sd-bus.h",
          "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h", "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h",
          and "sd-utf8.h" are compile-time optional via the
          "--enable-kdbus" switch, and they are not compiled in by
          default. To make use of kdbus, you have to explicitly enable
          the switch. Note however, that neither the kernel nor the
          userspace API for all of this is considered stable yet. We
          want to maintain the freedom to still change the APIs for
          now. By specifying this build-time switch, you acknowledge
          that you are aware of the instability of the current
          APIs.

        * Also, note that while kdbus is pretty much complete,
          it lacks one thing: proper policy support. This means you
          can build a fully working system with all features; however,
          it will be highly insecure. Policy support will be added in
          one of the next releases, at the same time that we will
          declare the APIs stable.

        * When the kernel command line argument "kdbus" is specified,
          systemd will automatically load the kdbus.ko kernel module. At
          this stage of development, it is only useful for testing kdbus
          and should not be used in production. Note: if "--enable-kdbus"
          is specified, and the kdbus.ko kernel module is available, and
          "kdbus" is added to the kernel command line, the entire system
          runs with kdbus instead of dbus-daemon, with the above mentioned
          problem of missing the system policy enforcement. Also a future
          version of kdbus.ko or a newer systemd will not be compatible with
          each other, and will unlikely be able to boot the machine if only
          one of them is updated.

        * systemctl gained a new "import-environment" command which
          uploads the caller's environment (or parts thereof) into the
          service manager so that it is inherited by services started
          by the manager. This is useful to upload variables like
          $DISPLAY into the user service manager.

        * A new PrivateDevices= switch has been added to service units
          which allows running a service with a namespaced /dev
          directory that does not contain any device nodes for
          physical devices. More specifically, it only includes devices
          such as /dev/null, /dev/urandom, and /dev/zero which are API
          entry points.

        * logind has been extended to support behaviour like VT
          switching on seats that do not support a VT. This makes
          multi-session available on seats that are not the first seat
          (seat0), and on systems where kernel support for VTs has
          been disabled at compile-time.

        * If a process holds a delay lock for system sleep or shutdown
          and fails to release it in time, we will now log its
          identity. This makes it easier to identify processes that
          cause slow suspends or power-offs.

        * When parsing /etc/crypttab, support for a new key-slot=
          option as supported by Debian is added. It allows indicating
          which LUKS slot to use on disk, speeding up key loading.

        * The sd_journal_sendv() API call has been checked and
          officially declared to be async-signal-safe so that it may
          be invoked from signal handlers for logging purposes.

        * Boot-time status output is now enabled automatically after a
          short timeout if boot does not progress, in order to give
          the user an indication what she or he is waiting for.

        * The boot-time output has been improved to show how much time
          remains until jobs expire.

        * The KillMode= switch in service units gained a new possible
          value "mixed". If set, and the unit is shut down, then the
          initial SIGTERM signal is sent only to the main daemon
          process, while the following SIGKILL signal is sent to
          all remaining processes of the service.

        * When a scope unit is registered, a new property "Controller"
          may be set. If set to a valid bus name, systemd will send a
          RequestStop() signal to this name when it would like to shut
          down the scope. This may be used to hook manager logic into
          the shutdown logic of scope units. Also, scope units may now
          be put in a special "abandoned" state, in which case the
          manager process which created them takes no further
          responsibilities for it.

        * When reading unit files, systemd will now verify
          the access mode of these files, and warn about certain
          suspicious combinations. This has been added to make it
          easier to track down packaging bugs where unit files are
          marked executable or world-writable.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new "--setenv=" switch to set
          container-wide environment variables. The similar option in
          systemd-activate was renamed from "--environment=" to
          "--setenv=" for consistency.

        * systemd-nspawn has been updated to create a new kdbus domain
          for each container that is invoked, thus allowing each
          container to have its own set of system and user buses,
          independent of the host.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --drop-capability= switch to run
          the container with less capabilities than the default. Both
          --drop-capability= and --capability= now take the special
          string "all" for dropping or keeping all capabilities.

        * systemd-nspawn gained new switches for executing containers
          with specific SELinux labels set.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --quiet switch to not generate
          any additional output but the container's own console
          output.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --share-system switch to run a
          container without PID namespacing enabled.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --register= switch to control
          whether the container is registered with systemd-machined or
          not. This is useful for containers that do not run full
          OS images, but only specific apps.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --keep-unit which may be used
          when invoked as the only program from a service unit, and
          results in registration of the unit service itself in
          systemd-machined, instead of a newly opened scope unit.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-interface= switch for
          moving arbitrary interfaces to the container. The new
          --network-veth switch creates a virtual Ethernet connection
          between host and container. The new --network-bridge=
          switch then allows assigning the host side of this virtual
          Ethernet connection to a bridge device.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --personality= switch for
          setting the kernel personality for the container. This is
          useful when running a 32-bit container on a 64-bit host. A
          similar option Personality= is now also available for service
          units to use.

        * logind will now also track a "Desktop" identifier for each
          session which encodes the desktop environment of it. This is
          useful for desktop environments that want to identify
          multiple running sessions of itself easily.

        * A new SELinuxContext= setting for service units has been
          added that allows setting a specific SELinux execution
          context for a service.

        * Most systemd client tools will now honour $SYSTEMD_LESS for
          settings of the "less" pager. By default, these tools will
          override $LESS to allow certain operations to work, such as
          jump-to-the-end. With $SYSTEMD_LESS, it is possible to
          influence this logic.

        * systemd's "seccomp" hook-up has been changed to make use of
          the libseccomp library instead of using its own
          implementation. This has benefits for portability among
          other things.

        * For usage together with SystemCallFilter=, a new
          SystemCallErrorNumber= setting has been introduced that
          allows configuration of a system error number to be returned
          on filtered system calls, instead of immediately killing the
          process. Also, SystemCallArchitectures= has been added to
          limit access to system calls of a particular architecture
          (in order to turn off support for unused secondary
          architectures). There is also a global
          SystemCallArchitectures= setting in system.conf now to turn
          off support for non-native system calls system-wide.

        * systemd requires a kernel with a working name_to_handle_at(),
          please see the kernel config requirements in the README file.

        Contributions from: Adam Williamson, Alex Jia, Anatol Pomozov,
        Ansgar Burchardt, AppleBloom, Auke Kok, Bastien Nocera,
        Chengwei Yang, Christian Seiler, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniele Medri, Daniel J
        Walsh, Daniel Mack, Dan McGee, Dave Reisner, David Coppa,
        David Herrmann, David Strauss, Djalal Harouni, Dmitry Pisklov,
        Elia Pinto, Florian Weimer, George McCollister, Goffredo
        Baroncelli, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Hendrik Brueckner, Igor
        Zhbanov, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jason A. Donenfeld,
        Jason St. John, Jasper St. Pierre, Jóhann B. Guðmundsson, Jose
        Ignacio Naranjo, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Kristian Høgsberg,
        Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz
        Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Marcos Felipe Rasia de
        Mello, Marko Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael
        Marineau, Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Michal Sekletar,
        Michele Curti, Oleksii Shevchuk, Olivier Brunel, Patrik Flykt,
        Pavel Holica, Raudi, Richard Marko, Ronny Chevalier, Sébastien
        Luttringer, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Simon Peeters,
        Stefan Beller, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefeve, Sylvia Else,
        Tero Roponen, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
        Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Unai Uribarri, Václav
        Pavlín, Vincent Batts, WaLyong Cho, William Giokas, Yang
        Zhiyong, Yin Kangkai, Yuxuan Shui, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2014-02-20

CHANGES WITH 208:

        * logind has gained support for facilitating privileged input
          and drm device access for unprivileged clients. This work is
          useful to allow Wayland display servers (and similar
          programs, such as kmscon) to run under the user's ID and
          access input and drm devices which are normally
          protected. When this is used (and the kernel is new enough)
          logind will "mute" IO on the file descriptors passed to
          Wayland as long as it is in the background and "unmute" it
          if it returns into the foreground. This allows secure
          session switching without allowing background sessions to
          eavesdrop on input and display data. This also introduces
          session switching support if VT support is turned off in the
          kernel, and on seats that are not seat0.

        * A new kernel command line option luks.options= is understood
          now which allows specifying LUKS options for usage for LUKS
          encrypted partitions specified with luks.uuid=.

        * tmpfiles.d(5) snippets may now use specifier expansion in
          path names. More specifically %m, %b, %H, %v, are now
          replaced by the local machine id, boot id, hostname, and
          kernel version number.

        * A new tmpfiles.d(5) command "m" has been introduced which
          may be used to change the owner/group/access mode of a file
          or directory if it exists, but do nothing if it does not.

        * This release removes high-level support for the
          MemorySoftLimit= cgroup setting. The underlying kernel
          cgroup attribute memory.soft_limit= is currently badly
          designed and likely to be removed from the kernel API in its
          current form, hence we should not expose it for now.

        * The memory.use_hierarchy cgroup attribute is now enabled for
          all cgroups systemd creates in the memory cgroup
          hierarchy. This option is likely to be come the built-in
          default in the kernel anyway, and the non-hierarchical mode
          never made much sense in the intrinsically hierarchical
          cgroup system.

        * A new field _SYSTEMD_SLICE= is logged along with all journal
          messages containing the slice a message was generated
          from. This is useful to allow easy per-customer filtering of
          logs among other things.

        * systemd-journald will no longer adjust the group of journal
          files it creates to the "systemd-journal" group. Instead we
          rely on the journal directory to be owned by the
          "systemd-journal" group, and its setgid bit set, so that the
          kernel file system layer will automatically enforce that
          journal files inherit this group assignment. The reason for
          this change is that we cannot allow NSS look-ups from
          journald which would be necessary to resolve
          "systemd-journal" to a numeric GID, because this might
          create deadlocks if NSS involves synchronous queries to
          other daemons (such as nscd, or sssd) which in turn are
          logging clients of journald and might block on it, which
          would then dead lock. A tmpfiles.d(5) snippet included in
          systemd will make sure the setgid bit and group are
          properly set on the journal directory if it exists on every
          boot. However, we recommend adjusting it manually after
          upgrades too (or from RPM scriptlets), so that the change is
          not delayed until next reboot.

        * Backlight and random seed files in /var/lib/ have moved into
          the /var/lib/systemd/ directory, in order to centralize all
          systemd generated files in one directory.

        * Boot time performance measurements (as displayed by
          "systemd-analyze" for example) will now read ACPI 5.0 FPDT
          performance information if that's available to determine how
          much time BIOS and boot loader initialization required. With
          a sufficiently new BIOS you hence no longer need to boot
          with Gummiboot to get access to such information.

        Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Chen Jie, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David
        Mackey, David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Evan Callicoat, Gao
        feng, Harald Hoyer, Jimmie Tauriainen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt,
        Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Mike Gilbert, Patrick McCarty,
        Sebastian Ott, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2013-10-02

CHANGES WITH 207:

        * The Restart= option for services now understands a new
          on-watchdog setting, which will restart the service
          automatically if the service stops sending out watchdog keep
          alive messages (as configured with WatchdogSec=).

        * The getty generator (which is responsible for bringing up a
          getty on configured serial consoles) will no longer only
          start a getty on the primary kernel console but on all
          others, too. This makes the order in which console= is
          specified on the kernel command line less important.

        * libsystemd-logind gained a new sd_session_get_vt() call to
          retrieve the VT number of a session.

        * If the option "tries=0" is set for an entry of /etc/crypttab
          its passphrase is queried indefinitely instead of any
          maximum number of tries.

        * If a service with a configure PID file terminates its PID
          file will now be removed automatically if it still exists
          afterwards. This should put an end to stale PID files.

        * systemd-run will now also take relative binary path names
          for execution and no longer insists on absolute paths.

        * InaccessibleDirectories= and ReadOnlyDirectories= now take
          paths that are optionally prefixed with "-" to indicate that
          it should not be considered a failure if they do not exist.

        * journalctl -o (and similar commands) now understands a new
          output mode "short-precise", it is similar to "short" but
          shows timestamps with usec accuracy.

        * The option "discard" (as known from Debian) is now
          synonymous to "allow-discards" in /etc/crypttab. In fact,
          "discard" is preferred now (since it is easier to remember
          and type).

        * Some licensing clean-ups were made, so that more code is now
          LGPL-2.1 licensed than before.

        * A minimal tool to save/restore the display backlight
          brightness across reboots has been added. It will store the
          backlight setting as late as possible at shutdown, and
          restore it as early as possible during reboot.

        * A logic to automatically discover and enable home and swap
          partitions on GPT disks has been added. With this in place
          /etc/fstab becomes optional for many setups as systemd can
          discover certain partitions located on the root disk
          automatically. Home partitions are recognized under their
          GPT type ID 933ac7e12eb44f13b8440e14e2aef915. Swap
          partitions are recognized under their GPT type ID
          0657fd6da4ab43c484e50933c84b4f4f.

        * systemd will no longer pass any environment from the kernel
          or initrd to system services. If you want to set an
          environment for all services, do so via the kernel command
          line systemd.setenv= assignment.

        * The systemd-sysctl tool no longer natively reads the file
          /etc/sysctl.conf. If desired, the file should be symlinked
          from /etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf. Apart from providing
          legacy support by a symlink rather than built-in code, it
          also makes the otherwise hidden order of application of the
          different files visible. (Note that this partly reverts to a
          pre-198 application order of sysctl knobs!)

        * The "systemctl set-log-level" and "systemctl dump" commands
          have been moved to systemd-analyze.

        * systemd-run learned the new --remain-after-exit switch,
          which causes the scope unit not to be cleaned up
          automatically after the process terminated.

        * tmpfiles learned a new --exclude-prefix= switch to exclude
          certain paths from operation.

        * journald will now automatically flush all messages to disk
          as soon as a message at the log level CRIT, ALERT or EMERG
          is received.

        Contributions from: Andrew Cook, Brandon Philips, Christian
        Hesse, Christoph Junghans, Colin Walters, Daniel Schaal,
        Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gao feng, George
        McCollister, Giovanni Campagna, Hannes Reinecke, Harald Hoyer,
        Herczeg Zsolt, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan Engelhardt,
        Jesper Larsen, Kay Sievers, Khem Raj, Lennart Poettering,
        Lukas Nykryn, Maciej Wereski, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau,
        Michael Scherer, Michael Stapelberg, Michal Sekletar, Michał
        Górny, Olivier Brunel, Ondrej Balaz, Ronny Chevalier, Shawn
        Landden, Steven Hiscocks, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe
        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, WANG Chao,
        William Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2013-09-13

CHANGES WITH 206:

        * The documentation has been updated to cover the various new
          concepts introduced with 205.

        * Unit files now understand the new %v specifier which
          resolves to the kernel version string as returned by "uname
          -r".

        * systemctl now supports filtering the unit list output by
          load state, active state and sub state, using the new
          --state= parameter.

        * "systemctl status" will now show the results of the
          condition checks (like ConditionPathExists= and similar) of
          the last start attempts of the unit. They are also logged to
          the journal.

        * "journalctl -b" may now be used to look for boot output of a
          specific boot. Try "journalctl -b -1" for the previous boot,
          but the syntax is substantially more powerful.

        * "journalctl --show-cursor" has been added which prints the
          cursor string the last shown log line. This may then be used
          with the new "journalctl --after-cursor=" switch to continue
          browsing logs from that point on.

        * "journalctl --force" may now be used to force regeneration
          of an FSS key.

        * Creation of "dead" device nodes has been moved from udev
          into kmod and tmpfiles. Previously, udev would read the kmod
          databases to pre-generate dead device nodes based on meta
          information contained in kernel modules, so that these would
          be auto-loaded on access rather then at boot. As this
          does not really have much to do with the exposing actual
          kernel devices to userspace this has always been slightly
          alien in the udev codebase. Following the new scheme kmod
          will now generate a runtime snippet for tmpfiles from the
          module meta information and it now is tmpfiles' job to the
          create the nodes. This also allows overriding access and
          other parameters for the nodes using the usual tmpfiles
          facilities. As side effect this allows us to remove the
          CAP_SYS_MKNOD capability bit from udevd entirely.

        * logind's device ACLs may now be applied to these "dead"
          devices nodes too, thus finally allowing managed access to
          devices such as /dev/snd/sequencer without loading the
          backing module right-away.

        * A new RPM macro has been added that may be used to apply
          tmpfiles configuration during package installation.

        * systemd-detect-virt and ConditionVirtualization= now can
          detect User-Mode-Linux machines (UML).

        * journald will now implicitly log the effective capabilities
          set of processes in the message metadata.

        * systemd-cryptsetup has gained support for TrueCrypt volumes.

        * The initrd interface has been simplified (more specifically,
          support for passing performance data via environment
          variables and fsck results via files in /run has been
          removed). These features were non-essential, and are
          nowadays available in a much nicer way by having systemd in
          the initrd serialize its state and have the hosts systemd
          deserialize it again.

        * The udev "keymap" data files and tools to apply keyboard
          specific mappings of scan to key codes, and force-release
          scan code lists have been entirely replaced by a udev
          "keyboard" builtin and a hwdb data file.

        * systemd will now honour the kernel's "quiet" command line
          argument also during late shutdown, resulting in a
          completely silent shutdown when used.

        * There's now an option to control the SO_REUSEPORT socket
          option in .socket units.

        * Instance units will now automatically get a per-template
          subslice of system.slice unless something else is explicitly
          configured. For example, instances of sshd@.service will now
          implicitly be placed in system-sshd.slice rather than
          system.slice as before.

        * Test coverage support may now be enabled at build time.

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Frederic Crozat, Harald
        Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan Engelhardt, Jan
        Janssen, Jason St. John, Jesper Larsen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Maciej Wereski, Martin Pitt, Michael
        Olbrich, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Ross Lagerwall, Shawn Landden,
        Thomas H.P. Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tomasz Torcz, William
        Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

        — Berlin, 2013-07-23

CHANGES WITH 205:

        * Two new unit types have been introduced:

          Scope units are very similar to service units, however, are
          created out of pre-existing processes — instead of PID 1
          forking off the processes. By using scope units it is
          possible for system services and applications to group their
          own child processes (worker processes) in a powerful way
          which then maybe used to organize them, or kill them
          together, or apply resource limits on them.

          Slice units may be used to partition system resources in an
          hierarchical fashion and then assign other units to them. By
          default there are now three slices: system.slice (for all
          system services), user.slice (for all user sessions),
          machine.slice (for VMs and containers).

          Slices and scopes have been introduced primarily in
          context of the work to move cgroup handling to a
          single-writer scheme, where only PID 1
          creates/removes/manages cgroups.

        * There's a new concept of "transient" units. In contrast to
          normal units these units are created via an API at runtime,
          not from configuration from disk. More specifically this
          means it is now possible to run arbitrary programs as
          independent services, with all execution parameters passed
          in via bus APIs rather than read from disk. Transient units
          make systemd substantially more dynamic then it ever was,
          and useful as a general batch manager.

        * logind has been updated to make use of scope and slice units
          for managing user sessions. As a user logs in he will get
          his own private slice unit, to which all sessions are added
          as scope units. We also added support for automatically
          adding an instance of user@.service for the user into the
          slice. Effectively logind will no longer create cgroup
          hierarchies on its own now, it will defer entirely to PID 1
          for this by means of scope, service and slice units. Since
          user sessions this way become entities managed by PID 1
          the output of "systemctl" is now a lot more comprehensive.

        * A new mini-daemon "systemd-machined" has been added which
          may be used by virtualization managers to register local
          VMs/containers. nspawn has been updated accordingly, and
          libvirt will be updated shortly. machined will collect a bit
          of meta information about the VMs/containers, and assign
          them their own scope unit (see above). The collected
          meta-data is then made available via the "machinectl" tool,
          and exposed in "ps" and similar tools. machined/machinectl
          is compile-time optional.

        * As discussed earlier, the low-level cgroup configuration
          options ControlGroup=, ControlGroupModify=,
          ControlGroupPersistent=, ControlGroupAttribute= have been
          removed. Please use high-level attribute settings instead as
          well as slice units.

        * A new bus call SetUnitProperties() has been added to alter
          various runtime parameters of a unit. This is primarily
          useful to alter cgroup parameters dynamically in a nice way,
          but will be extended later on to make more properties
          modifiable at runtime. systemctl gained a new set-properties
          command that wraps this call.

        * A new tool "systemd-run" has been added which can be used to
          run arbitrary command lines as transient services or scopes,
          while configuring a number of settings via the command
          line. This tool is currently very basic, however already
          very useful. We plan to extend this tool to even allow
          queuing of execution jobs with time triggers from the
          command line, similar in fashion to "at".

        * nspawn will now inform the user explicitly that kernels with
          audit enabled break containers, and suggest the user to turn
          off audit.

        * Support for detecting the IMA and AppArmor security
          frameworks with ConditionSecurity= has been added.

        * journalctl gained a new "-k" switch for showing only kernel
          messages, mimicking dmesg output; in addition to "--user"
          and "--system" switches for showing only user's own logs
          and system logs.

        * systemd-delta can now show information about drop-in
          snippets extending unit files.

        * libsystemd-bus has been substantially updated but is still
          not available as public API.

        * systemd will now look for the "debug" argument on the kernel
          command line and enable debug logging, similar to what
          "systemd.log_level=debug" already did before.

        * "systemctl set-default", "systemctl get-default" has been
          added to configure the default.target symlink, which
          controls what to boot into by default.

        * "systemctl set-log-level" has been added as a convenient
          way to raise and lower systemd logging threshold.

        * "systemd-analyze plot" will now show the time the various
          generators needed for execution, as well as information
          about the unit file loading.

        * libsystemd-journal gained a new sd_journal_open_files() call
          for opening specific journal files. journactl also gained a
          new switch to expose this new functionality. Previously we
          only supported opening all files from a directory, or all
          files from the system, as opening individual files only is
          racy due to journal file rotation.

        * systemd gained the new DefaultEnvironment= setting in
          /etc/systemd/system.conf to set environment variables for
          all services.

        * If a privileged process logs a journal message with the
          OBJECT_PID= field set, then journald will automatically
          augment this with additional OBJECT_UID=, OBJECT_GID=,
          OBJECT_COMM=, OBJECT_EXE=, ... fields. This is useful if
          system services want to log events about specific client
          processes. journactl/systemctl has been updated to make use
          of this information if all log messages regarding a specific
          unit is requested.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Chengwei Yang, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Albers, Daniel Wallace, Dave
        Reisner, David Coppa, David King, David Strauss, Eelco
        Dolstra, Gabriel de Perthuis, Harald Hoyer, Jan Alexander
        Steffens, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jason St. John, Johan
        Heikkilä, Karel Zak, Karol Lewandowski, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marius Vollmer,
        Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Tremer,
        Michal Schmidt, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Nirbheek Chauhan,
        Pierre Neidhardt, Ross Burton, Ross Lagerwall, Sean McGovern,
        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar,
        Václav Pavlín, Zachary Cook, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek,
        Łukasz Stelmach, 장동준

CHANGES WITH 204:

        * The Python bindings gained some minimal support for the APIs
          exposed by libsystemd-logind.

        * ConditionSecurity= gained support for detecting SMACK. Since
          this condition already supports SELinux and AppArmor we only
          miss IMA for this. Patches welcome!

        Contributions from: Karol Lewandowski, Lennart Poettering,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 203:

        * systemd-nspawn will now create /etc/resolv.conf if
          necessary, before bind-mounting the host's file onto it.

        * systemd-nspawn will now store meta information about a
          container on the container's cgroup as extended attribute
          fields, including the root directory.

        * The cgroup hierarchy has been reworked in many ways. All
          objects any of the components systemd creates in the cgroup
          tree are now suffixed. More specifically, user sessions are
          now placed in cgroups suffixed with ".session", users in
          cgroups suffixed with ".user", and nspawn containers in
          cgroups suffixed with ".nspawn". Furthermore, all cgroup
          names are now escaped in a simple scheme to avoid collision
          of userspace object names with kernel filenames. This work
          is preparation for making these objects relocatable in the
          cgroup tree, in order to allow easy resource partitioning of
          these objects without causing naming conflicts.

        * systemctl list-dependencies gained the new switches
          --plain, --reverse, --after and --before.

        * systemd-inhibit now shows the process name of processes that
          have taken an inhibitor lock.

        * nss-myhostname will now also resolve "localhost"
          implicitly. This makes /etc/hosts an optional file and
          nicely handles that on IPv6 ::1 maps to both "localhost" and
          the local hostname.

        * libsystemd-logind.so gained a new call
          sd_get_machine_names() to enumerate running containers and
          VMs (currently only supported by very new libvirt and
          nspawn). sd_login_monitor can now be used to watch
          VMs/containers coming and going.

        * .include is not allowed recursively anymore, and only in
          unit files. Usually it is better to use drop-in snippets in
          .d/*.conf anyway, as introduced with systemd 198.

        * systemd-analyze gained a new "critical-chain" command that
          determines the slowest chain of units run during system
          boot-up. It is very useful for tracking down where
          optimizing boot time is the most beneficial.

        * systemd will no longer allow manipulating service paths in
          the name=systemd:/system cgroup tree using ControlGroup= in
          units. (But is still fine with it in all other dirs.)

        * There's a new systemd-nspawn@.service service file that may
          be used to easily run nspawn containers as system
          services. With the container's root directory in
          /var/lib/container/foobar it is now sufficient to run
          "systemctl start systemd-nspawn@foobar.service" to boot it.

        * systemd-cgls gained a new parameter "--machine" to list only
          the processes within a certain container.

        * ConditionSecurity= now can check for "apparmor". We still
          are lacking checks for SMACK and IMA for this condition
          check though. Patches welcome!

        * A new configuration file /etc/systemd/sleep.conf has been
          added that may be used to configure which kernel operation
          systemd is supposed to execute when "suspend", "hibernate"
          or "hybrid-sleep" is requested. This makes the new kernel
          "freeze" state accessible to the user.

        * ENV{SYSTEMD_WANTS} in udev rules will now implicitly escape
          the passed argument if applicable.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters,
        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner,
        Evangelos Foutras, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Harald Hoyer, Josh
        Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn,
        MUNEDA Takahiro, Mantas Mikulėnas, Mirco Tischler, Nathaniel
        Chen, Nirbheek Chauhan, Ronny Chevalier, Ross Lagerwall, Tom
        Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, Ville Skyttä, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 202:

        * The output of 'systemctl list-jobs' got some polishing. The
          '--type=' argument may now be passed more than once. A new
          command 'systemctl list-sockets' has been added which shows
          a list of kernel sockets systemd is listening on with the
          socket units they belong to, plus the units these socket
          units activate.

        * The experimental libsystemd-bus library got substantial
          updates to work in conjunction with the (also experimental)
          kdbus kernel project. It works well enough to exchange
          messages with some sophistication. Note that kdbus is not
          ready yet, and the library is mostly an elaborate test case
          for now, and not installable.

        * systemd gained a new unit 'systemd-static-nodes.service'
          that generates static device nodes earlier during boot, and
          can run in conjunction with udev.

        * libsystemd-login gained a new call sd_pid_get_user_unit()
          to retrieve the user systemd unit a process is running
          in. This is useful for systems where systemd is used as
          session manager.

        * systemd-nspawn now places all containers in the new /machine
          top-level cgroup directory in the name=systemd
          hierarchy. libvirt will soon do the same, so that we get a
          uniform separation of /system, /user and /machine for system
          services, user processes and containers/virtual
          machines. This new cgroup hierarchy is also useful to stick
          stable names to specific container instances, which can be
          recognized later this way (this name may be controlled
          via systemd-nspawn's new -M switch). libsystemd-login also
          gained a new call sd_pid_get_machine_name() to retrieve the
          name of the container/VM a specific process belongs to.

        * bootchart can now store its data in the journal.

        * libsystemd-journal gained a new call
          sd_journal_add_conjunction() for AND expressions to the
          matching logic. This can be used to express more complex
          logical expressions.

        * journactl can now take multiple --unit= and --user-unit=
          switches.

        * The cryptsetup logic now understands the "luks.key=" kernel
          command line switch for specifying a file to read the
          decryption key from. Also, if a configured key file is not
          found the tool will now automatically fall back to prompting
          the user.

        * Python systemd.journal module was updated to wrap recently
          added functions from libsystemd-journal. The interface was
          changed to bring the low level interface in s.j._Reader
          closer to the C API, and the high level interface in
          s.j.Reader was updated to wrap and convert all data about
          an entry.

        Contributions from: Anatol Pomozov, Auke Kok, Harald Hoyer,
        Henrik Grindal Bakken, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas Marius Vollmer,
        Martin Jansa, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michal Schmidt,
        Mirco Tischler, Pali Rohar, Simon Peeters, Steven Hiscocks,
        Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 201:

        * journalctl --update-catalog now understands a new --root=
          option to operate on catalogs found in a different root
          directory.

        * During shutdown after systemd has terminated all running
          services a final killing loop kills all remaining left-over
          processes. We will now print the name of these processes
          when we send SIGKILL to them, since this usually indicates a
          problem.

        * If /etc/crypttab refers to password files stored on
          configured mount points automatic dependencies will now be
          generated to ensure the specific mount is established first
          before the key file is attempted to be read.

        * 'systemctl status' will now show information about the
          network sockets a socket unit is listening on.

        * 'systemctl status' will also shown information about any
          drop-in configuration file for units. (Drop-In configuration
          files in this context are files such as
          /etc/systemd/systemd/foobar.service.d/*.conf)

        * systemd-cgtop now optionally shows summed up CPU times of
          cgroups. Press '%' while running cgtop to switch between
          percentage and absolute mode. This is useful to determine
          which cgroups use up the most CPU time over the entire
          runtime of the system. systemd-cgtop has also been updated
          to be 'pipeable' for processing with further shell tools.

        * 'hostnamectl set-hostname' will now allow setting of FQDN
          hostnames.

        * The formatting and parsing of time span values has been
          changed. The parser now understands fractional expressions
          such as "5.5h". The formatter will now output fractional
          expressions for all time spans under 1min, i.e. "5.123456s"
          rather than "5s 123ms 456us". For time spans under 1s
          millisecond values are shown, for those under 1ms
          microsecond values are shown. This should greatly improve
          all time-related output of systemd.

        * libsystemd-login and libsystemd-journal gained new
          functions for querying the poll() events mask and poll()
          timeout value for integration into arbitrary event
          loops.

        * localectl gained the ability to list available X11 keymaps
          (models, layouts, variants, options).

        * 'systemd-analyze dot' gained the ability to filter for
          specific units via shell-style globs, to create smaller,
          more useful graphs. I.e. it is now possible to create simple
          graphs of all the dependencies between only target units, or
          of all units that Avahi has dependencies with.

        Contributions from: Cristian Rodríguez, Dr. Tilmann Bubeck,
        Harald Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Kay Sievers, Kelly
        Anderson, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Maksim Melnikau,
        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marius Vollmer, Martin Pitt, Michal
        Schmidt, Oleksii Shevchuk, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie,
        Steven Hiscocks, Thomas Weißschuh, Umut Tezduyar, Václav
        Pavlín, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Łukasz Stelmach

CHANGES WITH 200:

        * The boot-time readahead implementation for rotating media
          will now read the read-ahead data in multiple passes which
          consist of all read requests made in equidistant time
          intervals. This means instead of strictly reading read-ahead
          data in its physical order on disk we now try to find a
          middle ground between physical and access time order.

        * /etc/os-release files gained a new BUILD_ID= field for usage
          on operating systems that provide continuous builds of OS
          images.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Eelco Dolstra, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Martin Pitt, Václav Pavlín
        William Douglas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 199:

        * systemd-python gained an API exposing libsystemd-daemon.

        * The SMACK setup logic gained support for uploading CIPSO
          security policy.

        * Behaviour of PrivateTmp=, ReadWriteDirectories=,
          ReadOnlyDirectories= and InaccessibleDirectories= has
          changed. The private /tmp and /var/tmp directories are now
          shared by all processes of a service (which means
          ExecStartPre= may now leave data in /tmp that ExecStart= of
          the same service can still access). When a service is
          stopped its temporary directories are immediately deleted
          (normal clean-up with tmpfiles is still done in addition to
          this though).

        * By default, systemd will now set a couple of sysctl
          variables in the kernel: the safe sysrq options are turned
          on, IP route verification is turned on, and source routing
          disabled. The recently added hardlink and softlink
          protection of the kernel is turned on. These settings should
          be reasonably safe, and good defaults for all new systems.

        * The predictable network naming logic may now be turned off
          with a new kernel command line switch: net.ifnames=0.

        * A new libsystemd-bus module has been added that implements a
          pretty complete D-Bus client library. For details see:

          https://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/systemd-devel/2013-March/009797.html

        * journald will now explicitly flush the journal files to disk
          at the latest 5min after each write. The file will then also
          be marked offline until the next write. This should increase
          reliability in case of a crash. The synchronization delay
          can be configured via SyncIntervalSec= in journald.conf.

        * There's a new remote-fs-setup.target unit that can be used
          to pull in specific services when at least one remote file
          system is to be mounted.

        * There are new targets timers.target and paths.target as
          canonical targets to pull user timer and path units in
          from. This complements sockets.target with a similar
          purpose for socket units.

        * libudev gained a new call udev_device_set_attribute_value()
          to set sysfs attributes of a device.

        * The udev daemon now sets the default number of worker
          processes executed in parallel based on the number of available
          CPUs instead of the amount of available RAM. This is supposed
          to provide a more reliable default and limit a too aggressive
          parallelism for setups with 1000s of devices connected.

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Walters, Cristian
        Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Dave Reisner, Frederic Crozat, Hannes
        Reinecke, Harald Hoyer, Jan Alexander Steffens, Jan
        Engelhardt, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
        Mantas Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt, Mathieu Bridon, Michael Biebl,
        Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miklos Vajna, Nathaniel Chen,
        Oleksii Shevchuk, Ozan Çağlayan, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
        Andersen, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 198:

        * Configuration of unit files may now be extended via drop-in
          files without having to edit/override the unit files
          themselves. More specifically, if the administrator wants to
          change one value for a service file foobar.service he can
          now do so by dropping in a configuration snippet into
          /etc/systemd/system/foobar.service.d/*.conf. The unit logic
          will load all these snippets and apply them on top of the
          main unit configuration file, possibly extending or
          overriding its settings. Using these drop-in snippets is
          generally nicer than the two earlier options for changing
          unit files locally: copying the files from
          /usr/lib/systemd/system/ to /etc/systemd/system/ and editing
          them there; or creating a new file in /etc/systemd/system/
          that incorporates the original one via ".include". Drop-in
          snippets into these .d/ directories can be placed in any
          directory systemd looks for units in, and the usual
          overriding semantics between /usr/lib, /etc and /run apply
          for them too.

        * Most unit file settings which take lists of items can now be
          reset by assigning the empty string to them. For example,
          normally, settings such as Environment=FOO=BAR append a new
          environment variable assignment to the environment block,
          each time they are used. By assigning Environment= the empty
          string the environment block can be reset to empty. This is
          particularly useful with the .d/*.conf drop-in snippets
          mentioned above, since this adds the ability to reset list
          settings from vendor unit files via these drop-ins.

        * systemctl gained a new "list-dependencies" command for
          listing the dependencies of a unit recursively.

        * Inhibitors are now honored and listed by "systemctl
          suspend", "systemctl poweroff" (and similar) too, not only
          GNOME. These commands will also list active sessions by
          other users.

        * Resource limits (as exposed by the various control group
          controllers) can now be controlled dynamically at runtime
          for all units. More specifically, you can now use a command
          like "systemctl set-cgroup-attr foobar.service cpu.shares
          2000" to alter the CPU shares a specific service gets. These
          settings are stored persistently on disk, and thus allow the
          administrator to easily adjust the resource usage of
          services with a few simple commands. This dynamic resource
          management logic is also available to other programs via the
          bus. Almost any kernel cgroup attribute and controller is
          supported.

        * systemd-vconsole-setup will now copy all font settings to
          all allocated VTs, where it previously applied them only to
          the foreground VT.

        * libsystemd-login gained the new sd_session_get_tty() API
          call.

        * This release drops support for a few legacy or
          distribution-specific LSB facility names when parsing init
          scripts: $x-display-manager, $mail-transfer-agent,
          $mail-transport-agent, $mail-transfer-agent, $smtp,
          $null. Also, the mail-transfer-agent.target unit backing
          this has been removed. Distributions which want to retain
          compatibility with this should carry the burden for
          supporting this themselves and patch support for these back
          in, if they really need to. Also, the facilities $syslog and
          $local_fs are now ignored, since systemd does not support
          early-boot LSB init scripts anymore, and these facilities
          are implied anyway for normal services. syslog.target has
          also been removed.

        * There are new bus calls on PID1's Manager object for
          cancelling jobs, and removing snapshot units. Previously,
          both calls were only available on the Job and Snapshot
          objects themselves.

        * systemd-journal-gatewayd gained SSL support.

        * The various "environment" files, such as /etc/locale.conf
          now support continuation lines with a backslash ("\") as
          last character in the line, similarly in style (but different)
          to how this is supported in shells.

        * For normal user processes the _SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT= field is
          now implicitly appended to every log entry logged. systemctl
          has been updated to filter by this field when operating on a
          user systemd instance.

        * nspawn will now implicitly add the CAP_AUDIT_WRITE and
          CAP_AUDIT_CONTROL capabilities to the capabilities set for
          the container. This makes it easier to boot unmodified
          Fedora systems in a container, which however still requires
          audit=0 to be passed on the kernel command line. Auditing in
          kernel and userspace is unfortunately still too broken in
          context of containers, hence we recommend compiling it out
          of the kernel or using audit=0. Hopefully this will be fixed
          one day for good in the kernel.

        * nspawn gained the new --bind= and --bind-ro= parameters to
          bind mount specific directories from the host into the
          container.

        * nspawn will now mount its own devpts file system instance
          into the container, in order not to leak pty devices from
          the host into the container.

        * systemd will now read the firmware boot time performance
          information from the EFI variables, if the used boot loader
          supports this, and takes it into account for boot performance
          analysis via "systemd-analyze". This is currently supported
          only in conjunction with Gummiboot, but could be supported
          by other boot loaders too. For details see:

          https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/BootLoaderInterface

        * A new generator has been added that automatically mounts the
          EFI System Partition (ESP) to /boot, if that directory
          exists, is empty, and no other file system has been
          configured to be mounted there.

        * logind will now send out PrepareForSleep(false) out
          unconditionally, after coming back from suspend. This may be
          used by applications as asynchronous notification for
          system resume events.

        * "systemctl unlock-sessions" has been added, that allows
          unlocking the screens of all user sessions at once, similar
          to how "systemctl lock-sessions" already locked all users
          sessions. This is backed by a new D-Bus call UnlockSessions().

        * "loginctl seat-status" will now show the master device of a
          seat. (i.e. the device of a seat that needs to be around for
          the seat to be considered available, usually the graphics
          card).

        * tmpfiles gained a new "X" line type, that allows
          configuration of files and directories (with wildcards) that
          shall be excluded from automatic cleanup ("aging").

        * udev default rules set the device node permissions now only
          at "add" events, and do not change them any longer with a
          later "change" event.

        * The log messages for lid events and power/sleep keypresses
          now carry a message ID.

        * We now have a substantially larger unit test suite, but this
          continues to be work in progress.

        * udevadm hwdb gained a new --root= parameter to change the
          root directory to operate relative to.

        * logind will now issue a background sync() request to the kernel
          early at shutdown, so that dirty buffers are flushed to disk early
          instead of at the last moment, in order to optimize shutdown
          times a little.

        * A new bootctl tool has been added that is an interface for
          certain boot loader operations. This is currently a preview
          and is likely to be extended into a small mechanism daemon
          like timedated, localed, hostnamed, and can be used by
          graphical UIs to enumerate available boot options, and
          request boot into firmware operations.

        * systemd-bootchart has been relicensed to LGPLv2.1+ to match
          the rest of the package. It also has been updated to work
          correctly in initrds.

        * Policykit previously has been runtime optional, and is now
          also compile time optional via a configure switch.

        * systemd-analyze has been reimplemented in C. Also "systemctl
          dot" has moved into systemd-analyze.

        * "systemctl status" with no further parameters will now print
          the status of all active or failed units.

        * Operations such as "systemctl start" can now be executed
          with a new mode "--irreversible" which may be used to queue
          operations that cannot accidentally be reversed by a later
          job queuing. This is by default used to make shutdown
          requests more robust.

        * The Python API of systemd now gained a new module for
          reading journal files.

        * A new tool kernel-install has been added that can install
          kernel images according to the Boot Loader Specification:

          https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Specifications/BootLoaderSpec

        * Boot time console output has been improved to provide
          animated boot time output for hanging jobs.

        * A new tool systemd-activate has been added which can be used
          to test socket activation with, directly from the command
          line. This should make it much easier to test and debug
          socket activation in daemons.

        * journalctl gained a new "--reverse" (or -r) option to show
          journal output in reverse order (i.e. newest line first).

        * journalctl gained a new "--pager-end" (or -e) option to jump
          to immediately jump to the end of the journal in the
          pager. This is only supported in conjunction with "less".

        * journalctl gained a new "--user-unit=" option, that works
          similarly to "--unit=" but filters for user units rather than
          system units.

        * A number of unit files to ease adoption of systemd in
          initrds has been added. This moves some minimal logic from
          the various initrd implementations into systemd proper.

        * The journal files are now owned by a new group
          "systemd-journal", which exists specifically to allow access
          to the journal, and nothing else. Previously, we used the
          "adm" group for that, which however possibly covers more
          than just journal/log file access. This new group is now
          already used by systemd-journal-gatewayd to ensure this
          daemon gets access to the journal files and as little else
          as possible. Note that "make install" will also set FS ACLs
          up for /var/log/journal to give "adm" and "wheel" read
          access to it, in addition to "systemd-journal" which owns
          the journal files. We recommend that packaging scripts also
          add read access to "adm" + "wheel" to /var/log/journal, and
          all existing/future journal files. To normal users and
          administrators little changes, however packagers need to
          ensure to create the "systemd-journal" system group at
          package installation time.

        * The systemd-journal-gatewayd now runs as unprivileged user
          systemd-journal-gateway:systemd-journal-gateway. Packaging
          scripts need to create these system user/group at
          installation time.

        * timedated now exposes a new boolean property CanNTP that
          indicates whether a local NTP service is available or not.

        * systemd-detect-virt will now also detect xen PVs

        * The pstore file system is now mounted by default, if it is
          available.

        * In addition to the SELinux and IMA policies we will now also
          load SMACK policies at early boot.

        Contributions from: Adel Gadllah, Aleksander Morgado, Auke
        Kok, Ayan George, Bastien Nocera, Colin Walters, Daniel Buch,
        Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David Strauss,
        Eelco Dolstra, Enrico Scholz, Frederic Crozat, Harald Hoyer,
        Jan Janssen, Jonathan Callen, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
        Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin
        Pitt, Mauro Dreissig, Max F. Albrecht, Michael Biebl, Michael
        Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Michal Vyskocil,
        Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Mirco Tischler, Nathaniel Chen, Nestor
        Ovroy, Oleksii Shevchuk, Paul W. Frields, Piotr Drąg, Rob
        Clark, Ryan Lortie, Simon McVittie, Simon Peeters, Steven
        Hiscocks, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom
        Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, William Giokas, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeeshan Ali (Khattak)

CHANGES WITH 197:

        * Timer units now support calendar time events in addition to
          monotonic time events. That means you can now trigger a unit
          based on a calendar time specification such as "Thu,Fri
          2013-*-1,5 11:12:13" which refers to 11:12:13 of the first
          or fifth day of any month of the year 2013, given that it is
          a thursday or friday. This brings timer event support
          considerably closer to cron's capabilities. For details on
          the supported calendar time specification language see
          systemd.time(7).

        * udev now supports a number of different naming policies for
          network interfaces for predictable names, and a combination
          of these policies is now the default. Please see this wiki
          document for details:

          https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames

        * Auke Kok's bootchart implementation has been added to the
          systemd tree. It is an optional component that can graph the
          boot in quite some detail. It is one of the best bootchart
          implementations around and minimal in its code and
          dependencies.

        * nss-myhostname has been integrated into the systemd source
          tree. nss-myhostname guarantees that the local hostname
          always stays resolvable via NSS. It has been a weak
          requirement of systemd-hostnamed since a long time, and
          since its code is actually trivial we decided to just
          include it in systemd's source tree. It can be turned off
          with a configure switch.

        * The read-ahead logic is now capable of properly detecting
          whether a btrfs file system is on SSD or rotating media, in
          order to optimize the read-ahead scheme. Previously, it was
          only capable of detecting this on traditional file systems
          such as ext4.

        * In udev, additional device properties are now read from the
          IAB in addition to the OUI database. Also, Bluetooth company
          identities are attached to the devices as well.

        * In service files %U may be used as specifier that is
          replaced by the configured user name of the service.

        * nspawn may now be invoked without a controlling TTY. This
          makes it suitable for invocation as its own service. This
          may be used to set up a simple containerized server system
          using only core OS tools.

        * systemd and nspawn can now accept socket file descriptors
          when they are started for socket activation. This enables
          implementation of socket activated nspawn
          containers. i.e. think about autospawning an entire OS image
          when the first SSH or HTTP connection is received. We expect
          that similar functionality will also be added to libvirt-lxc
          eventually.

        * journalctl will now suppress ANSI color codes when
          presenting log data.

        * systemctl will no longer show control group information for
          a unit if the control group is empty anyway.

        * logind can now automatically suspend/hibernate/shutdown the
          system on idle.

        * /etc/machine-info and hostnamed now also expose the chassis
          type of the system. This can be used to determine whether
          the local system is a laptop, desktop, handset or
          tablet. This information may either be configured by the
          user/vendor or is automatically determined from ACPI and DMI
          information if possible.

        * A number of PolicyKit actions are now bound together with
          "imply" rules. This should simplify creating UIs because
          many actions will now authenticate similar ones as well.

        * Unit files learnt a new condition ConditionACPower= which
          may be used to conditionalize a unit depending on whether an
          AC power source is connected or not, of whether the system
          is running on battery power.

        * systemctl gained a new "is-failed" verb that may be used in
          shell scripts and suchlike to check whether a specific unit
          is in the "failed" state.

        * The EnvironmentFile= setting in unit files now supports file
          globbing, and can hence be used to easily read a number of
          environment files at once.

        * systemd will no longer detect and recognize specific
          distributions. All distribution-specific #ifdeffery has been
          removed, systemd is now fully generic and
          distribution-agnostic. Effectively, not too much is lost as
          a lot of the code is still accessible via explicit configure
          switches. However, support for some distribution specific
          legacy configuration file formats has been dropped. We
          recommend distributions to simply adopt the configuration
          files everybody else uses now and convert the old
          configuration from packaging scripts. Most distributions
          already did that. If that's not possible or desirable,
          distributions are welcome to forward port the specific
          pieces of code locally from the git history.

        * When logging a message about a unit systemd will now always
          log the unit name in the message meta data.

        * localectl will now also discover system locale data that is
          not stored in locale archives, but directly unpacked.

        * logind will no longer unconditionally use framebuffer
          devices as seat masters, i.e. as devices that are required
          to be existing before a seat is considered preset. Instead,
          it will now look for all devices that are tagged as
          "seat-master" in udev. By default, framebuffer devices will
          be marked as such, but depending on local systems, other
          devices might be marked as well. This may be used to
          integrate graphics cards using closed source drivers (such
          as NVidia ones) more nicely into logind. Note however, that
          we recommend using the open source NVidia drivers instead,
          and no udev rules for the closed-source drivers will be
          shipped from us upstream.

        Contributions from: Adam Williamson, Alessandro Crismani, Auke
        Kok, Colin Walters, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David
        Herrmann, David Strauss, Dimitrios Apostolou, Eelco Dolstra,
        Eric Benoit, Giovanni Campagna, Hannes Reinecke, Henrik
        Grindal Bakken, Hermann Gausterer, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann,
        Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael Biebl, Michael Terry,
        Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Oleg
        Samarin, Pekka Lundstrom, Philip Nilsson, Ramkumar
        Ramachandra, Richard Yao, Robert Millan, Sami Kerola, Shawn
        Landden, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Thomas Jarosch,
        Tollef Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 196:

        * udev gained support for loading additional device properties
          from an indexed database that is keyed by vendor/product IDs
          and similar device identifiers. For the beginning this
          "hwdb" is populated with data from the well-known PCI and
          USB database, but also includes PNP, ACPI and OID data. In
          the longer run this indexed database shall grow into
          becoming the one central database for non-essential
          userspace device metadata. Previously, data from the PCI/USB
          database was only attached to select devices, since the
          lookup was a relatively expensive operation due to O(n) time
          complexity (with n being the number of entries in the
          database). Since this is now O(1), we decided to add in this
          data for all devices where this is available, by
          default. Note that the indexed database needs to be rebuilt
          when new data files are installed. To achieve this you need
          to update your packaging scripts to invoke "udevadm hwdb
          --update" after installation of hwdb data files. For
          RPM-based distributions we introduced the new
          %udev_hwdb_update macro for this purpose.

        * The Journal gained support for the "Message Catalog", an
          indexed database to link up additional information with
          journal entries. For further details please check:

          https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/catalog

          The indexed message catalog database also needs to be
          rebuilt after installation of message catalog files. Use
          "journalctl --update-catalog" for this. For RPM-based
          distributions we introduced the %journal_catalog_update
          macro for this purpose.

        * The Python Journal bindings gained support for the standard
          Python logging framework.

        * The Journal API gained new functions for checking whether
          the underlying file system of a journal file is capable of
          properly reporting file change notifications, or whether
          applications that want to reflect journal changes "live"
          need to recheck journal files continuously in appropriate
          time intervals.

        * It is now possible to set the "age" field for tmpfiles
          entries to 0, indicating that files matching this entry
          shall always be removed when the directories are cleaned up.

        * coredumpctl gained a new "gdb" verb which invokes gdb
          right-away on the selected coredump.

        * There's now support for "hybrid sleep" on kernels that
          support this, in addition to "suspend" and "hibernate". Use
          "systemctl hybrid-sleep" to make use of this.

        * logind's HandleSuspendKey= setting (and related settings)
          now gained support for a new "lock" setting to simply
          request the screen lock on all local sessions, instead of
          actually executing a suspend or hibernation.

        * systemd will now mount the EFI variables file system by
          default.

        * Socket units now gained support for configuration of the
          SMACK security label.

        * timedatectl will now output the time of the last and next
          daylight saving change.

        * We dropped support for various legacy and distro-specific
          concepts, such as insserv, early-boot SysV services
          (i.e. those for non-standard runlevels such as 'b' or 'S')
          or ArchLinux /etc/rc.conf support. We recommend the
          distributions who still need support this to either continue
          to maintain the necessary patches downstream, or find a
          different solution. (Talk to us if you have questions!)

        * Various systemd components will now bypass PolicyKit checks
          for root and otherwise handle properly if PolicyKit is not
          found to be around. This should fix most issues for
          PolicyKit-less systems. Quite frankly this should have been
          this way since day one. It is absolutely our intention to
          make systemd work fine on PolicyKit-less systems, and we
          consider it a bug if something does not work as it should if
          PolicyKit is not around.

        * For embedded systems it is now possible to build udev and
          systemd without blkid and/or kmod support.

        * "systemctl switch-root" is now capable of switching root
          more than once. I.e. in addition to transitions from the
          initrd to the host OS it is now possible to transition to
          further OS images from the host. This is useful to implement
          offline updating tools.

        * Various other additions have been made to the RPM macros
          shipped with systemd. Use %udev_rules_update() after
          installing new udev rules files. %_udevhwdbdir,
          %_udevrulesdir, %_journalcatalogdir, %_tmpfilesdir,
          %_sysctldir are now available which resolve to the right
          directories for packages to place various data files in.

        * journalctl gained the new --full switch (in addition to
          --all, to disable ellipsation for long messages.

        Contributions from: Anders Olofsson, Auke Kok, Ben Boeckel,
        Colin Walters, Cosimo Cecchi, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner,
        Eelco Dolstra, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Kay Sievers,
        Chun-Yi Lee, Lekensteyn, Lennart Poettering, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Marti Raudsepp, Martin Pitt, Mauro Dreissig, Michael Biebl,
        Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miklos Vajna, Nis Martensen,
        Oleksii Shevchuk, Olivier Brunel, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Thomas
        Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tony
        Camuso, Umut Tezduyar, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 195:

        * journalctl gained new --since= and --until= switches to
          filter by time. It also now supports nice filtering for
          units via --unit=/-u.

        * Type=oneshot services may use ExecReload= and do the
          right thing.

        * The journal daemon now supports time-based rotation and
          vacuuming, in addition to the usual disk-space based
          rotation.

        * The journal will now index the available field values for
          each field name. This enables clients to show pretty drop
          downs of available match values when filtering. The bash
          completion of journalctl has been updated
          accordingly. journalctl gained a new switch -F to list all
          values a certain field takes in the journal database.

        * More service events are now written as structured messages
          to the journal, and made recognizable via message IDs.

        * The timedated, localed and hostnamed mini-services which
          previously only provided support for changing time, locale
          and hostname settings from graphical DEs such as GNOME now
          also have a minimal (but very useful) text-based client
          utility each. This is probably the nicest way to changing
          these settings from the command line now, especially since
          it lists available options and is fully integrated with bash
          completion.

        * There's now a new tool "systemd-coredumpctl" to list and
          extract coredumps from the journal.

        * We now install a README each in /var/log/ and
          /etc/rc.d/init.d explaining where the system logs and init
          scripts went. This hopefully should help folks who go to
          that dirs and look into the otherwise now empty void and
          scratch their heads.

        * When user-services are invoked (by systemd --user) the
          $MANAGERPID env var is set to the PID of systemd.

        * SIGRTMIN+24 when sent to a --user instance will now result
          in immediate termination of systemd.

        * gatewayd received numerous feature additions such as a
          "follow" mode, for live syncing and filtering.

        * browse.html now allows filtering and showing detailed
          information on specific entries. Keyboard navigation and
          mouse screen support has been added.

        * gatewayd/journalctl now supports HTML5/JSON
          Server-Sent-Events as output.

        * The SysV init script compatibility logic will now
          heuristically determine whether a script supports the
          "reload" verb, and only then make this available as
          "systemctl reload".

        * "systemctl status --follow" has been removed, use "journalctl
          -u" instead.

        * journald.conf's RuntimeMinSize=, PersistentMinSize= settings
          have been removed since they are hardly useful to be
          configured.

        * And I'd like to take the opportunity to specifically mention
          Zbigniew for his great contributions. Zbigniew, you rock!

        Contributions from: Andrew Eikum, Christian Hesse, Colin
        Guthrie, Daniel J Walsh, Dave Reisner, Eelco Dolstra, Ferenc
        Wágner, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas
        Mikulėnas, Martin Mikkelsen, Martin Pitt, Michael Olbrich,
        Michael Stapelberg, Michal Schmidt, Sebastian Ott, Thomas
        Bächler, Umut Tezduyar, Will Woods, Wulf C. Krueger, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Сковорода Никита Андреевич

CHANGES WITH 194:

        * If /etc/vconsole.conf is non-existent or empty we will no
          longer load any console font or key map at boot by
          default. Instead the kernel defaults will be left
          intact. This is definitely the right thing to do, as no
          configuration should mean no configuration, and hard-coding
          font names that are different on all archs is probably a bad
          idea. Also, the kernel default key map and font should be
          good enough for most cases anyway, and mostly identical to
          the userspace fonts/key maps we previously overloaded them
          with. If distributions want to continue to default to a
          non-kernel font or key map they should ship a default
          /etc/vconsole.conf with the appropriate contents.

        Contributions from: Colin Walters, Daniel J Walsh, Dave
        Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Tollef
        Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 193:

        * journalctl gained a new --cursor= switch to show entries
          starting from the specified location in the journal.

        * We now enforce a size limit on journal entry fields exported
          with "-o json" in journalctl. Fields larger than 4K will be
          assigned null. This can be turned off with --all.

        * An (optional) journal gateway daemon is now available as
          "systemd-journal-gatewayd.service". This service provides
          access to the journal via HTTP and JSON. This functionality
          will be used to implement live log synchronization in both
          pull and push modes, but has various other users too, such
          as easy log access for debugging of embedded devices. Right
          now it is already useful to retrieve the journal via HTTP:

          # systemctl start systemd-journal-gatewayd.service
          # wget http://localhost:19531/entries

          This will download the journal contents in a
          /var/log/messages compatible format. The same as JSON:

          # curl -H"Accept: application/json" http://localhost:19531/entries

          This service is also accessible via a web browser where a
          single static HTML5 app is served that uses the JSON logic
          to enable the user to do some basic browsing of the
          journal. This will be extended later on. Here's an example
          screenshot of this app in its current state:

          http://0pointer.de/public/journal-gatewayd

        Contributions from: Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Robert
        Milasan, Tom Gundersen

CHANGES WITH 192:

        * The bash completion logic is now available for journalctl
          too.

        * We do not mount the "cpuset" controller anymore together with
          "cpu" and "cpuacct", as "cpuset" groups generally cannot be
          started if no parameters are assigned to it. "cpuset" hence
          broke code that assumed it could create "cpu" groups and
          just start them.

        * journalctl -f will now subscribe to terminal size changes,
          and line break accordingly.

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykrynm, Mirco Tischler, Václav Pavlín

CHANGES WITH 191:

        * nspawn will now create a symlink /etc/localtime in the
          container environment, copying the host's timezone
          setting. Previously this has been done via a bind mount, but
          since symlinks cannot be bind mounted this has now been
          changed to create/update the appropriate symlink.

        * journalctl -n's line number argument is now optional, and
          will default to 10 if omitted.

        * journald will now log the maximum size the journal files may
          take up on disk. This is particularly useful if the default
          built-in logic of determining this parameter from the file
          system size is used. Use "systemctl status
          systemd-journald.service" to see this information.

        * The multi-seat X wrapper tool has been stripped down. As X
          is now capable of enumerating graphics devices via udev in a
          seat-aware way the wrapper is not strictly necessary
          anymore. A stripped down temporary stop-gap is still shipped
          until the upstream display managers have been updated to
          fully support the new X logic. Expect this wrapper to be
          removed entirely in one of the next releases.

        * HandleSleepKey= in logind.conf has been split up into
          HandleSuspendKey= and HandleHibernateKey=. The old setting
          is not available anymore. X11 and the kernel are
          distinguishing between these keys and we should too. This
          also means the inhibition lock for these keys has been split
          into two.

        Contributions from: Dave Airlie, Eelco Dolstra, Lennart
        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Václav Pavlín

CHANGES WITH 190:

        * Whenever a unit changes state we will now log this to the
          journal and show along the unit's own log output in
          "systemctl status".

        * ConditionPathIsMountPoint= can now properly detect bind
          mount points too. (Previously, a bind mount of one file
          system to another place in the same file system could not be
          detected as mount, since they shared struct stat's st_dev
          field.)

        * We will now mount the cgroup controllers cpu, cpuacct,
          cpuset and the controllers net_cls, net_prio together by
          default.

        * nspawn containers will now have a virtualized boot
          ID. (i.e. /proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id is now mounted
          over with a randomized ID at container initialization). This
          has the effect of making "journalctl -b" do the right thing
          in a container.

        * The JSON output journal serialization has been updated not
          to generate "endless" list objects anymore, but rather one
          JSON object per line. This is more in line how most JSON
          parsers expect JSON objects. The new output mode
          "json-pretty" has been added to provide similar output, but
          neatly aligned for readability by humans.

        * We dropped all explicit sync() invocations in the shutdown
          code. The kernel does this implicitly anyway in the kernel
          reboot() syscall. halt(8)'s -n option is now a compatibility
          no-op.

        * We now support virtualized reboot() in containers, as
          supported by newer kernels. We will fall back to exit() if
          CAP_SYS_REBOOT is not available to the container. Also,
          nspawn makes use of this now and will actually reboot the
          container if the containerized OS asks for that.

        * journalctl will only show local log output by default
          now. Use --merge (-m) to show remote log output, too.

        * libsystemd-journal gained the new sd_journal_get_usage()
          call to determine the current disk usage of all journal
          files. This is exposed in the new "journalctl --disk-usage"
          command.

        * journald gained a new configuration setting SplitMode= in
          journald.conf which may be used to control how user journals
          are split off. See journald.conf(5) for details.

        * A new condition type ConditionFileNotEmpty= has been added.

        * tmpfiles' "w" lines now support file globbing, to write
          multiple files at once.

        * We added Python bindings for the journal submission
          APIs. More Python APIs for a number of selected APIs will
          likely follow. Note that we intend to add native bindings
          only for the Python language, as we consider it common
          enough to deserve bindings shipped within systemd. There are
          various projects outside of systemd that provide bindings
          for languages such as PHP or Lua.

        * Many conditions will now resolve specifiers such as %i. In
          addition, PathChanged= and related directives of .path units
          now support specifiers as well.

        * There's now a new RPM macro definition for the system preset
          dir: %_presetdir.

        * journald will now warn if it ca not forward a message to the
          syslog daemon because its socket is full.

        * timedated will no longer write or process /etc/timezone,
          except on Debian. As we do not support late mounted /usr
          anymore /etc/localtime always being a symlink is now safe,
          and hence the information in /etc/timezone is not necessary
          anymore.

        * logind will now always reserve one VT for a text getty (VT6
          by default). Previously if more than 6 X sessions where
          started they took up all the VTs with auto-spawned gettys,
          so that no text gettys were available anymore.

        * udev will now automatically inform the btrfs kernel logic
          about btrfs RAID components showing up. This should make
          simple hotplug based btrfs RAID assembly work.

        * PID 1 will now increase its RLIMIT_NOFILE to 64K by default
          (but not for its children which will stay at the kernel
          default). This should allow setups with a lot more listening
          sockets.

        * systemd will now always pass the configured timezone to the
          kernel at boot. timedated will do the same when the timezone
          is changed.

        * logind's inhibition logic has been updated. By default,
          logind will now handle the lid switch, the power and sleep
          keys all the time, even in graphical sessions. If DEs want
          to handle these events on their own they should take the new
          handle-power-key, handle-sleep-key and handle-lid-switch
          inhibitors during their runtime. A simple way to achieve
          that is to invoke the DE wrapped in an invocation of:

          systemd-inhibit --what=handle-power-key:handle-sleep-key:handle-lid-switch ...

        * Access to unit operations is now checked via SELinux taking
          the unit file label and client process label into account.

        * systemd will now notify the administrator in the journal
          when he over-mounts a non-empty directory.

        * There are new specifiers that are resolved in unit files,
          for the host name (%H), the machine ID (%m) and the boot ID
          (%b).

        Contributions from: Allin Cottrell, Auke Kok, Brandon Philips,
        Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters, Daniel J Walsh, Dave Reisner,
        Eelco Dolstra, Jan Engelhardt, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas,
        Martin Pitt, Matthias Clasen, Michael Olbrich, Pierre Schmitz,
        Shawn Landden, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen,
        Václav Pavlín, Yin Kangkai, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 189:

        * Support for reading structured kernel messages from
          /dev/kmsg has now been added and is enabled by default.

        * Support for reading kernel messages from /proc/kmsg has now
          been removed. If you want kernel messages in the journal
          make sure to run a recent kernel (>= 3.5) that supports
          reading structured messages from /dev/kmsg (see
          above). /proc/kmsg is now exclusive property of classic
          syslog daemons again.

        * The libudev API gained the new
          udev_device_new_from_device_id() call.

        * The logic for file system namespace (ReadOnlyDirectory=,
          ReadWriteDirectoy=, PrivateTmp=) has been reworked not to
          require pivot_root() anymore. This means fewer temporary
          directories are created below /tmp for this feature.

        * nspawn containers will now see and receive all submounts
          made on the host OS below the root file system of the
          container.

        * Forward Secure Sealing is now supported for Journal files,
          which provide cryptographical sealing of journal files so
          that attackers cannot alter log history anymore without this
          being detectable. Lennart will soon post a blog story about
          this explaining it in more detail.

        * There are two new service settings RestartPreventExitStatus=
          and SuccessExitStatus= which allow configuration of exit
          status (exit code or signal) which will be excepted from the
          restart logic, resp. consider successful.

        * journalctl gained the new --verify switch that can be used
          to check the integrity of the structure of journal files and
          (if Forward Secure Sealing is enabled) the contents of
          journal files.

        * nspawn containers will now be run with /dev/stdin, /dev/fd/
          and similar symlinks pre-created. This makes running shells
          as container init process a lot more fun.

        * The fstab support can now handle PARTUUID= and PARTLABEL=
          entries.

        * A new ConditionHost= condition has been added to match
          against the hostname (with globs) and machine ID. This is
          useful for clusters where a single OS image is used to
          provision a large number of hosts which shall run slightly
          different sets of services.

        * Services which hit the restart limit will now be placed in a
          failure state.

        Contributions from: Bertram Poettering, Dave Reisner, Huang
        Hang, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Martin
        Pitt, Simon Peeters, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 188:

        * When running in --user mode systemd will now become a
          subreaper (PR_SET_CHILD_SUBREAPER). This should make the ps
          tree a lot more organized.

        * A new PartOf= unit dependency type has been introduced that
          may be used to group services in a natural way.

        * "systemctl enable" may now be used to enable instances of
          services.

        * journalctl now prints error log levels in red, and
          warning/notice log levels in bright white. It also supports
          filtering by log level now.

        * cgtop gained a new -n switch (similar to top), to configure
          the maximum number of iterations to run for. It also gained
          -b, to run in batch mode (accepting no input).

        * The suffix ".service" may now be omitted on most systemctl
          command lines involving service unit names.

        * There's a new bus call in logind to lock all sessions, as
          well as a loginctl verb for it "lock-sessions".

        * libsystemd-logind.so gained a new call sd_journal_perror()
          that works similar to libc perror() but logs to the journal
          and encodes structured information about the error number.

        * /etc/crypttab entries now understand the new keyfile-size=
          option.

        * shutdown(8) now can send a (configurable) wall message when
          a shutdown is cancelled.

        * The mount propagation mode for the root file system will now
          default to "shared", which is useful to make containers work
          nicely out-of-the-box so that they receive new mounts from
          the host. This can be undone locally by running "mount
          --make-rprivate /" if needed.

        * The prefdm.service file has been removed. Distributions
          should maintain this unit downstream if they intend to keep
          it around. However, we recommend writing normal unit files
          for display managers instead.

        * Since systemd is a crucial part of the OS we will now
          default to a number of compiler switches that improve
          security (hardening) such as read-only relocations, stack
          protection, and suchlike.

        * The TimeoutSec= setting for services is now split into
          TimeoutStartSec= and TimeoutStopSec= to allow configuration
          of individual time outs for the start and the stop phase of
          the service.

        Contributions from: Artur Zaprzala, Arvydas Sidorenko, Auke
        Kok, Bryan Kadzban, Dave Reisner, David Strauss, Harald Hoyer,
        Jim Meyering, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Mantas
        Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Peter
        Alfredsen, Shawn Landden, Simon Peeters, Terence Honles, Tom
        Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 187:

        * The journal and id128 C APIs are now fully documented as man
          pages.

        * Extra safety checks have been added when transitioning from
          the initial RAM disk to the main system to avoid accidental
          data loss.

        * /etc/crypttab entries now understand the new keyfile-offset=
          option.

        * systemctl -t can now be used to filter by unit load state.

        * The journal C API gained the new sd_journal_wait() call to
          make writing synchronous journal clients easier.

        * journalctl gained the new -D switch to show journals from a
          specific directory.

        * journalctl now displays a special marker between log
          messages of two different boots.

        * The journal is now explicitly flushed to /var via a service
          systemd-journal-flush.service, rather than implicitly simply
          by seeing /var/log/journal to be writable.

        * journalctl (and the journal C APIs) can now match for much
          more complex expressions, with alternatives and
          disjunctions.

        * When transitioning from the initial RAM disk to the main
          system we will now kill all processes in a killing spree to
          ensure no processes stay around by accident.

        * Three new specifiers may be used in unit files: %u, %h, %s
          resolve to the user name, user home directory resp. user
          shell. This is useful for running systemd user instances.

        * We now automatically rotate journal files if their data
          object hash table gets a fill level > 75%. We also size the
          hash table based on the configured maximum file size. This
          together should lower hash collisions drastically and thus
          speed things up a bit.

        * journalctl gained the new "--header" switch to introspect
          header data of journal files.

        * A new setting SystemCallFilters= has been added to services
          which may be used to apply blacklists or whitelists to
          system calls. This is based on SECCOMP Mode 2 of Linux 3.5.

        * nspawn gained a new --link-journal= switch (and quicker: -j)
          to link the container journal with the host. This makes it
          very easy to centralize log viewing on the host for all
          guests while still keeping the journal files separated.

        * Many bugfixes and optimizations

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Eelco Dolstra, Harald Hoyer, Kay
        Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Malte Starostik, Paul Menzel, Rex
        Tsai, Shawn Landden, Tom Gundersen, Ville Skyttä, Zbigniew
        Jędrzejewski-Szmek

CHANGES WITH 186:

        * Several tools now understand kernel command line arguments,
          which are only read when run in an initial RAM disk. They
          usually follow closely their normal counterparts, but are
          prefixed with rd.

        * There's a new tool to analyze the readahead files that are
          automatically generated at boot. Use:

          /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-readahead analyze /.readahead

        * We now provide an early debug shell on tty9 if this enabled. Use:

          systemctl enable debug-shell.service

        * All plymouth related units have been moved into the Plymouth
          package. Please make sure to upgrade your Plymouth version
          as well.

        * systemd-tmpfiles now supports getting passed the basename of
          a configuration file only, in which case it will look for it
          in all appropriate directories automatically.

        * udevadm info now takes a /dev or /sys path as argument, and
          does the right thing. Example:

          udevadm info /dev/sda
          udevadm info /sys/class/block/sda

        * systemctl now prints a warning if a unit is stopped but a
          unit that might trigger it continues to run. Example: a
          service is stopped but the socket that activates it is left
          running.

        * "systemctl status" will now mention if the log output was
          shortened due to rotation since a service has been started.

        * The journal API now exposes functions to determine the
          "cutoff" times due to rotation.

        * journald now understands SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 for triggering
          immediately flushing of runtime logs to /var if possible,
          resp. for triggering immediate rotation of the journal
          files.

        * It is now considered an error if a service is attempted to
          be stopped that is not loaded.

        * XDG_RUNTIME_DIR now uses numeric UIDs instead of usernames.

        * systemd-analyze now supports Python 3

        * tmpfiles now supports cleaning up directories via aging
          where the first level dirs are always kept around but
          directories beneath it automatically aged. This is enabled
          by prefixing the age field with '~'.

        * Seat objects now expose CanGraphical, CanTTY properties
          which is required to deal with very fast bootups where the
          display manager might be running before the graphics drivers
          completed initialization.

        * Seat objects now expose a State property.

        * We now include RPM macros for service enabling/disabling
          based on the preset logic. We recommend RPM based
          distributions to make use of these macros if possible. This
          makes it simpler to reuse RPM spec files across
          distributions.

        * We now make sure that the collected systemd unit name is
          always valid when services log to the journal via
          STDOUT/STDERR.

        * There's a new man page kernel-command-line(7) detailing all
          command line options we understand.

        * The fstab generator may now be disabled at boot by passing
          fstab=0 on the kernel command line.

        * A new kernel command line option modules-load= is now understood
          to load a specific kernel module statically, early at boot.

        * Unit names specified on the systemctl command line are now
          automatically escaped as needed. Also, if file system or
          device paths are specified they are automatically turned
          into the appropriate mount or device unit names. Example:

          systemctl status /home
          systemctl status /dev/sda

        * The SysVConsole= configuration option has been removed from
          system.conf parsing.

        * The SysV search path is no longer exported on the D-Bus
          Manager object.

        * The Names= option has been removed from unit file parsing.

        * There's a new man page bootup(7) detailing the boot process.

        * Every unit and every generator we ship with systemd now
          comes with full documentation. The self-explanatory boot is
          complete.

        * A couple of services gained "systemd-" prefixes in their
          name if they wrap systemd code, rather than only external
          code. Among them fsck@.service which is now
          systemd-fsck@.service.

        * The HaveWatchdog property has been removed from the D-Bus
          Manager object.

        * systemd.confirm_spawn= on the kernel command line should now
          work sensibly.

        * There's a new man page crypttab(5) which details all options
          we actually understand.

        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --capability= switch to pass
          additional capabilities to the container.

        * timedated will now read known NTP implementation unit names
          from /usr/lib/systemd/ntp-units.d/*.list,
          systemd-timedated-ntp.target has been removed.

        * journalctl gained a new switch "-b" that lists log data of
          the current boot only.

        * The notify socket is in the abstract namespace again, in
          order to support daemons which chroot() at start-up.

        * There is a new Storage= configuration option for journald
          which allows configuration of where log data should go. This
          also provides a way to disable journal logging entirely, so
          that data collected is only forwarded to the console, the
          kernel log buffer or another syslog implementation.

        * Many bugfixes and optimizations

        Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Guthrie, Dave Reisner,
        David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
        Lukas Nykryn, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Paul Menzel,
        Shawn Landden, Tom Gundersen

CHANGES WITH 185:

        * "systemctl help <unit>" now shows the man page if one is
          available.

        * Several new man pages have been added.

        * MaxLevelStore=, MaxLevelSyslog=, MaxLevelKMsg=,
          MaxLevelConsole= can now be specified in
          journald.conf. These options allow reducing the amount of
          data stored on disk or forwarded by the log level.

        * TimerSlackNSec= can now be specified in system.conf for
          PID1. This allows system-wide power savings.

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Kay Sievers, Lauri Kasanen,
        Lennart Poettering, Malte Starostik, Marc-Antoine Perennou,
        Matthias Clasen

CHANGES WITH 184:

        * logind is now capable of (optionally) handling power and
          sleep keys as well as the lid switch.

        * journalctl now understands the syntax "journalctl
          /usr/bin/avahi-daemon" to get all log output of a specific
          daemon.

        * CapabilityBoundingSet= in system.conf now also influences
          the capability bound set of usermode helpers of the kernel.

        Contributions from: Daniel Drake, Daniel J. Walsh, Gert
        Michael Kulyk, Harald Hoyer, Jean Delvare, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Matthew Garrett, Matthias Clasen, Paul
        Menzel, Shawn Landden, Tero Roponen, Tom Gundersen

CHANGES WITH 183:

        * Note that we skipped 139 releases here in order to set the
          new version to something that is greater than both udev's
          and systemd's most recent version number.

        * udev: all udev sources are merged into the systemd source tree now.
          All future udev development will happen in the systemd tree. It
          is still fully supported to use the udev daemon and tools without
          systemd running, like in initramfs or other init systems. Building
          udev though, will require the *build* of the systemd tree, but
          udev can be properly *run* without systemd.

        * udev: /lib/udev/devices/ are not read anymore; systemd-tmpfiles
          should be used to create dead device nodes as workarounds for broken
          subsystems.

        * udev: RUN+="socket:..."  and udev_monitor_new_from_socket() is
          no longer supported. udev_monitor_new_from_netlink() needs to be
          used to subscribe to events.

        * udev: when udevd is started by systemd, processes which are left
          behind by forking them off of udev rules, are unconditionally cleaned
          up and killed now after the event handling has finished. Services or
          daemons must be started as systemd services. Services can be
          pulled-in by udev to get started, but they can no longer be directly
          forked by udev rules.

        * udev: the daemon binary is called systemd-udevd now and installed
          in /usr/lib/systemd/. Standalone builds or non-systemd systems need
          to adapt to that, create symlink, or rename the binary after building
          it.

        * libudev no longer provides these symbols:
            udev_monitor_from_socket()
            udev_queue_get_failed_list_entry()
            udev_get_{dev,sys,run}_path()
          The versions number was bumped and symbol versioning introduced.

        * systemd-loginctl and systemd-journalctl have been renamed
          to loginctl and journalctl to match systemctl.

        * The config files: /etc/systemd/systemd-logind.conf and
          /etc/systemd/systemd-journald.conf have been renamed to
          logind.conf and journald.conf. Package updates should rename
          the files to the new names on upgrade.

        * For almost all files the license is now LGPL2.1+, changed
          from the previous GPL2.0+. Exceptions are some minor stuff
          of udev (which will be changed to LGPL2.1 eventually, too),
          and the MIT licensed sd-daemon.[ch] library that is suitable
          to be used as drop-in files.

        * systemd and logind now handle system sleep states, in
          particular suspending and hibernating.

        * logind now implements a sleep/shutdown/idle inhibiting logic
          suitable for a variety of uses. Soonishly Lennart will blog
          about this in more detail.

        * var-run.mount and var-lock.mount are no longer provided
          (which previously bind mounted these directories to their new
          places). Distributions which have not converted these
          directories to symlinks should consider stealing these files
          from git history and add them downstream.

        * We introduced the Documentation= field for units and added
          this to all our shipped units. This is useful to make it
          easier to explore the boot and the purpose of the various
          units.

        * All smaller setup units (such as
          systemd-vconsole-setup.service) now detect properly if they
          are run in a container and are skipped when
          appropriate. This guarantees an entirely noise-free boot in
          Linux container environments such as systemd-nspawn.

        * A framework for implementing offline system updates is now
          integrated, for details see:
          https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/SystemUpdates

        * A new service type Type=idle is available now which helps us
          avoiding ugly interleaving of getty output and boot status
          messages.

        * There's now a system-wide CapabilityBoundingSet= option to
          globally reduce the set of capabilities for the
          system. This is useful to drop CAP_SYS_MKNOD, CAP_SYS_RAWIO,
          CAP_NET_RAW, CAP_SYS_MODULE, CAP_SYS_TIME, CAP_SYS_PTRACE or
          even CAP_NET_ADMIN system-wide for secure systems.

        * There are now system-wide DefaultLimitXXX= options to
          globally change the defaults of the various resource limits
          for all units started by PID 1.

        * Harald Hoyer's systemd test suite has been integrated into
          systemd which allows easy testing of systemd builds in qemu
          and nspawn. (This is really awesome! Ask us for details!)

        * The fstab parser is now implemented as generator, not inside
          of PID 1 anymore.

        * systemctl will now warn you if .mount units generated from
          /etc/fstab are out of date due to changes in fstab that
          have not been read by systemd yet.

        * systemd is now suitable for usage in initrds. Dracut has
          already been updated to make use of this. With this in place
          initrds get a slight bit faster but primarily are much
          easier to introspect and debug since "systemctl status" in
          the host system can be used to introspect initrd services,
          and the journal from the initrd is kept around too.

        * systemd-delta has been added, a tool to explore differences
          between user/admin configuration and vendor defaults.

        * PrivateTmp= now affects both /tmp and /var/tmp.

        * Boot time status messages are now much prettier and feature
          proper english language. Booting up systemd has never been
          so sexy.

        * Read-ahead pack files now include the inode number of all
          files to pre-cache. When the inode changes the pre-caching
          is not attempted. This should be nicer to deal with updated
          packages which might result in changes of read-ahead
          patterns.

        * We now temporaritly lower the kernel's read_ahead_kb variable
          when collecting read-ahead data to ensure the kernel's
          built-in read-ahead does not add noise to our measurements
          of necessary blocks to pre-cache.

        * There's now RequiresMountsFor= to add automatic dependencies
          for all mounts necessary for a specific file system path.

        * MountAuto= and SwapAuto= have been removed from
          system.conf. Mounting file systems at boot has to take place
          in systemd now.

        * nspawn now learned a new switch --uuid= to set the machine
          ID on the command line.

        * nspawn now learned the -b switch to automatically search
          for an init system.

        * vt102 is now the default TERM for serial TTYs, upgraded from
          vt100.

        * systemd-logind now works on VT-less systems.

        * The build tree has been reorganized. The individual
          components now have directories of their own.

        * A new condition type ConditionPathIsReadWrite= is now available.

        * nspawn learned the new -C switch to create cgroups for the
          container in other hierarchies.

        * We now have support for hardware watchdogs, configurable in
          system.conf.

        * The scheduled shutdown logic now has a public API.

        * We now mount /tmp as tmpfs by default, but this can be
          masked and /etc/fstab can override it.

        * Since udisks does not make use of /media anymore we are not
          mounting a tmpfs on it anymore.

        * journalctl gained a new --local switch to only interleave
          locally generated journal files.

        * We can now load the IMA policy at boot automatically.

        * The GTK tools have been split off into a systemd-ui.

        Contributions from: Andreas Schwab, Auke Kok, Ayan George,
        Colin Guthrie, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Ward, Elan
        Ruusamäe, Frederic Crozat, Gergely Nagy, Guillermo Vidal,
        Hannes Reinecke, Harald Hoyer, Javier Jardón, Kay Sievers,
        Lennart Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Léo Gillot-Lamure,
        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Maxim
        A. Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michal
        Schmidt, Nis Martensen, Patrick McCarty, Roberto Sassu, Shawn
        Landden, Sjoerd Simons, Sven Anders, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom
        Gundersen

CHANGES WITH 44:

        * This is mostly a bugfix release

        * Support optional initialization of the machine ID from the
          KVM or container configured UUID.

        * Support immediate reboots with "systemctl reboot -ff"

        * Show /etc/os-release data in systemd-analyze output

        * Many bugfixes for the journal, including endianness fixes and
          ensuring that disk space enforcement works

        * sd-login.h is C++ compatible again

        * Extend the /etc/os-release format on request of the Debian
          folks

        * We now refuse non-UTF8 strings used in various configuration
          and unit files. This is done to ensure we do not pass invalid
          data over D-Bus or expose it elsewhere.

        * Register Mimo USB Screens as suitable for automatic seat
          configuration

        * Read SELinux client context from journal clients in a race
          free fashion

        * Reorder configuration file lookup order. /etc now always
          overrides /run in order to allow the administrator to always
          and unconditionally override vendor-supplied or
          automatically generated data.

        * The various user visible bits of the journal now have man
          pages. We still lack man pages for the journal API calls
          however.

        * We now ship all man pages in HTML format again in the
          tarball.

        Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Dirk Eibach, Frederic
        Crozat, Harald Hoyer, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Marti
        Raudsepp, Michal Schmidt, Shawn Landden, Tero Roponen, Thierry
        Reding

CHANGES WITH 43:

        * This is mostly a bugfix release

        * systems lacking /etc/os-release  are no longer supported.

        * Various functionality updates to libsystemd-login.so

        * Track class of PAM logins to distinguish greeters from
          normal user logins.

        Contributions from: Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael
        Biebl

CHANGES WITH 42:

        * This is an important bugfix release for v41.

        * Building man pages is now optional which should be useful
          for those building systemd from git but unwilling to install
          xsltproc.

        * Watchdog support for supervising services is now usable. In
          a future release support for hardware watchdogs
          (i.e. /dev/watchdog) will be added building on this.

        * Service start rate limiting is now configurable and can be
          turned off per service. When a start rate limit is hit a
          reboot can automatically be triggered.

        * New CanReboot(), CanPowerOff() bus calls in systemd-logind.

        Contributions from: Benjamin Franzke, Bill Nottingham,
        Frederic Crozat, Lennart Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal
        Schmidt, Michał Górny, Piotr Drąg

CHANGES WITH 41:

        * The systemd binary is installed /usr/lib/systemd/systemd now;
          An existing /sbin/init symlink needs to be adapted with the
          package update.

        * The code that loads kernel modules has been ported to invoke
          libkmod directly, instead of modprobe. This means we do not
          support systems with module-init-tools anymore.

        * Watchdog support is now already useful, but still not
          complete.

        * A new kernel command line option systemd.setenv= is
          understood to set system wide environment variables
          dynamically at boot.

        * We now limit the set of capabilities of systemd-journald.

        * We now set SIGPIPE to ignore by default, since it only is
          useful in shell pipelines, and has little use in general
          code. This can be disabled with IgnoreSIPIPE=no in unit
          files.

        Contributions from: Benjamin Franzke, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Tom Gundersen,
        William Douglas

CHANGES WITH 40:

        * This is mostly a bugfix release

        * We now expose the reason why a service failed in the
          "Result" D-Bus property.

        * Rudimentary service watchdog support (will be completed over
          the next few releases.)

        * When systemd forks off in order execute some service we will
          now immediately changes its argv[0] to reflect which process
          it will execute. This is useful to minimize the time window
          with a generic argv[0], which makes bootcharts more useful

        Contributions from: Alvaro Soliverez, Chris Paulson-Ellis, Kay
        Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt,
        Mike Kazantsev, Ray Strode

CHANGES WITH 39:

        * This is mostly a test release, but incorporates many
          bugfixes.

        * New systemd-cgtop tool to show control groups by their
          resource usage.

        * Linking against libacl for ACLs is optional again. If
          disabled, support tracking device access for active logins
          goes becomes unavailable, and so does access to the user
          journals by the respective users.

        * If a group "adm" exists, journal files are automatically
          owned by them, thus allow members of this group full access
          to the system journal as well as all user journals.

        * The journal now stores the SELinux context of the logging
          client for all entries.

        * Add C++ inclusion guards to all public headers

        * New output mode "cat" in the journal to print only text
          messages, without any meta data like date or time.

        * Include tiny X server wrapper as a temporary stop-gap to
          teach XOrg udev display enumeration. This is used by display
          managers such as gdm, and will go away as soon as XOrg
          learned native udev hotplugging for display devices.

        * Add new systemd-cat tool for executing arbitrary programs
          with STDERR/STDOUT connected to the journal. Can also act as
          BSD logger replacement, and does so by default.

        * Optionally store all locally generated coredumps in the
          journal along with meta data.

        * systemd-tmpfiles learnt four new commands: n, L, c, b, for
          writing short strings to files (for usage for /sys), and for
          creating symlinks, character and block device nodes.

        * New unit file option ControlGroupPersistent= to make cgroups
          persistent, following the mechanisms outlined in
          https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PaxControlGroups

        * Support multiple local RTCs in a sane way

        * No longer monopolize IO when replaying readahead data on
          rotating disks, since we might starve non-file-system IO to
          death, since fanotify() will not see accesses done by blkid,
          or fsck.

        * Do not show kernel threads in systemd-cgls anymore, unless
          requested with new -k switch.

        Contributions from: Dan Horák, Kay Sievers, Lennart
        Poettering, Michal Schmidt

CHANGES WITH 38:

        * This is mostly a test release, but incorporates many
          bugfixes.

        * The git repository moved to:
          git://anongit.freedesktop.org/systemd/systemd
          ssh://git.freedesktop.org/git/systemd/systemd

        * First release with the journal
          http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/the-journal.html

        * The journal replaces both systemd-kmsg-syslogd and
          systemd-stdout-bridge.

        * New sd_pid_get_unit() API call in libsystemd-logind

        * Many systemadm clean-ups

        * Introduce remote-fs-pre.target which is ordered before all
          remote mounts and may be used to start services before all
          remote mounts.

        * Added Mageia support

        * Add bash completion for systemd-loginctl

        * Actively monitor PID file creation for daemons which exit in
          the parent process before having finished writing the PID
          file in the daemon process. Daemons which do this need to be
          fixed (i.e. PID file creation must have finished before the
          parent exits), but we now react a bit more gracefully to them.

        * Add colourful boot output, mimicking the well-known output
          of existing distributions.

        * New option PassCredentials= for socket units, for
          compatibility with a recent kernel ABI breakage.

        * /etc/rc.local is now hooked in via a generator binary, and
          thus will no longer act as synchronization point during
          boot.

        * systemctl list-unit-files now supports --root=.

        * systemd-tmpfiles now understands two new commands: z, Z for
          relabelling files according to the SELinux database. This is
          useful to apply SELinux labels to specific files in /sys,
          among other things.

        * Output of SysV services is now forwarded to both the console
          and the journal by default, not only just the console.

        * New man pages for all APIs from libsystemd-login.

        * The build tree got reorganized and the build system is a
          lot more modular allowing embedded setups to specifically
          select the components of systemd they are interested in.

        * Support for Linux systems lacking the kernel VT subsystem is
          restored.

        * configure's --with-rootdir= got renamed to
          --with-rootprefix= to follow the naming used by udev and
          kmod

        * Unless specified otherwise we will now install to /usr instead
          of /usr/local by default.

        * Processes with '@' in argv[0][0] are now excluded from the
          final shut-down killing spree, following the logic explained
          in:
          https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/RootStorageDaemons

        * All processes remaining in a service cgroup when we enter
          the START or START_PRE states are now killed with
          SIGKILL. That means it is no longer possible to spawn
          background processes from ExecStart= lines (which was never
          supported anyway, and bad style).

        * New PropagateReloadTo=/PropagateReloadFrom= options to bind
          reloading of units together.

        Contributions from: Bill Nottingham, Daniel J. Walsh, Dave
        Reisner, Dexter Morgan, Gregs Gregs, Jonathan Nieder, Kay
        Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Michael Biebl, Michal Schmidt,
        Michał Górny, Ran Benita, Thomas Jarosch, Tim Waugh, Tollef
        Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek