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#!/usr/bin/python3
# PYTHON_ARGCOMPLETE_OK

import argparse
import configparser
import contextlib
import ctypes, ctypes.util
import crypt
import getpass
import hashlib
import os
import platform
import shutil
import stat
import subprocess
import sys
import tempfile
import time
import urllib.request
import uuid

try:
    import argcomplete
except ImportError:
    pass

from enum import Enum

__version__ = '3'

if sys.version_info < (3, 5):
    sys.exit("Sorry, we need at least Python 3.5.")

# TODO
# - volatile images
# - make ubuntu images bootable
# - work on device nodes
# - allow passing env vars

def die(message, status=1):
    assert status >= 1 and status < 128
    sys.stderr.write(message + "\n")
    sys.exit(status)

class OutputFormat(Enum):
    raw_gpt = 1
    raw_btrfs = 2
    raw_squashfs = 3
    directory = 4
    subvolume = 5
    tar = 6

class Distribution(Enum):
    fedora = 1
    debian = 2
    ubuntu = 3
    arch = 4
    opensuse = 5
    mageia = 6

GPT_ROOT_X86           = uuid.UUID("44479540f29741b29af7d131d5f0458a")
GPT_ROOT_X86_64        = uuid.UUID("4f68bce3e8cd4db196e7fbcaf984b709")
GPT_ROOT_ARM           = uuid.UUID("69dad7102ce44e3cb16c21a1d49abed3")
GPT_ROOT_ARM_64        = uuid.UUID("b921b0451df041c3af444c6f280d3fae")
GPT_ROOT_IA64          = uuid.UUID("993d8d3df80e4225855a9daf8ed7ea97")
GPT_ESP                = uuid.UUID("c12a7328f81f11d2ba4b00a0c93ec93b")
GPT_SWAP               = uuid.UUID("0657fd6da4ab43c484e50933c84b4f4f")
GPT_HOME               = uuid.UUID("933ac7e12eb44f13b8440e14e2aef915")
GPT_SRV                = uuid.UUID("3b8f842520e04f3b907f1a25a76f98e8")
GPT_ROOT_X86_VERITY    = uuid.UUID("d13c5d3bb5d1422ab29f9454fdc89d76")
GPT_ROOT_X86_64_VERITY = uuid.UUID("2c7357edebd246d9aec123d437ec2bf5")
GPT_ROOT_ARM_VERITY    = uuid.UUID("7386cdf2203c47a9a498f2ecce45a2d6")
GPT_ROOT_ARM_64_VERITY = uuid.UUID("df3300ced69f4c92978c9bfb0f38d820")
GPT_ROOT_IA64_VERITY   = uuid.UUID("86ed10d5b60745bb8957d350f23d0571")

if platform.machine() == "x86_64":
    GPT_ROOT_NATIVE = GPT_ROOT_X86_64
    GPT_ROOT_NATIVE_VERITY = GPT_ROOT_X86_64_VERITY
elif platform.machine() == "aarch64":
    GPT_ROOT_NATIVE = GPT_ROOT_ARM_64
    GPT_ROOT_NATIVE_VERITY = GPT_ROOT_ARM_64_VERITY
else:
    die("Don't know the %s architecture." % platform.machine())

CLONE_NEWNS = 0x00020000

FEDORA_KEYS_MAP = {
    "23": "34EC9CBA",
    "24": "81B46521",
    "25": "FDB19C98",
    "26": "64DAB85D",
}

# 1 MB at the beginning of the disk for the GPT disk label, and
# another MB at the end (this is actually more than needed.)
GPT_HEADER_SIZE = 1024*1024
GPT_FOOTER_SIZE = 1024*1024

def unshare(flags):
    libc = ctypes.CDLL(ctypes.util.find_library("c"), use_errno=True)

    if libc.unshare(ctypes.c_int(flags)) != 0:
        e = ctypes.get_errno()
        raise OSError(e, os.strerror(e))

def format_bytes(bytes):
    if bytes >= 1024*1024*1024:
        return "{:0.1f}G".format(bytes / 1024**3)
    if bytes >= 1024*1024:
        return "{:0.1f}M".format(bytes / 1024**2)
    if bytes >= 1024:
        return "{:0.1f}K".format(bytes / 1024)

    return "{}B".format(bytes)

def roundup512(x):
    return (x + 511) & ~511

def print_step(text):
    sys.stderr.write(" \033[0;1;39m" + text + "\033[0m\n")

@contextlib.contextmanager
def complete_step(text, text2=None):
    print_step(text + '...')
    args = []
    yield args
    if text2 is None:
        text2 = text + ' complete'
    print_step(text2.format(*args) + '.')

@complete_step('Detaching namespace')
def init_namespace(args):
    args.original_umask = os.umask(0o000)
    unshare(CLONE_NEWNS)
    subprocess.run(["mount", "--make-rslave", "/"], check=True)

def setup_workspace(args):
    print_step("Setting up temporary workspace.")
    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.directory, OutputFormat.subvolume):
        d = tempfile.TemporaryDirectory(dir=os.path.dirname(args.output), prefix='.mkosi-')
    else:
        d = tempfile.TemporaryDirectory(dir='/var/tmp', prefix='mkosi-')

    print_step("Temporary workspace in " + d.name + " is now set up.")
    return d

def btrfs_subvol_create(path, mode=0o755):
    m = os.umask(~mode & 0o7777)
    subprocess.run(["btrfs", "subvol", "create", path], check=True)
    os.umask(m)

def btrfs_subvol_delete(path):
    subprocess.run(["btrfs", "subvol", "delete", path], stdout=subprocess.DEVNULL, stderr=subprocess.DEVNULL, check=True)

def btrfs_subvol_make_ro(path, b=True):
    subprocess.run(["btrfs", "property", "set", path, "ro", "true" if b else "false"], check=True)

def image_size(args):
    size = GPT_HEADER_SIZE + GPT_FOOTER_SIZE

    if args.root_size is not None:
        size += args.root_size
    if args.home_size is not None:
        size += args.home_size
    if args.srv_size is not None:
        size += args.srv_size
    if args.bootable:
        size += args.esp_size
    if args.swap_size is not None:
        size += args.swap_size
    if args.verity_size is not None:
        size += args.verity_size

    return size

def disable_cow(path):
    """Disable copy-on-write if applicable on filesystem"""

    subprocess.run(["chattr", "+C", path], stdout=subprocess.DEVNULL, stderr=subprocess.DEVNULL, check=False)

def determine_partition_table(args):

    pn = 1
    table = "label: gpt\n"
    run_sfdisk = False

    if args.bootable:
        table += 'size={}, type={}, name="ESP System Partition"\n'.format(args.esp_size // 512, GPT_ESP)
        args.esp_partno = pn
        pn += 1
        run_sfdisk = True
    else:
        args.esp_partno = None

    if args.swap_size is not None:
        table += 'size={}, type={}, name="Swap Partition"\n'.format(args.swap_size // 512, GPT_SWAP)
        args.swap_partno = pn
        pn += 1
        run_sfdisk = True
    else:
        args.swap_partno = None

    args.home_partno = None
    args.srv_partno = None

    if args.output_format != OutputFormat.raw_btrfs:
        if args.home_size is not None:
            table += 'size={}, type={}, name="Home Partition"\n'.format(args.home_size // 512, GPT_HOME)
            args.home_partno = pn
            pn += 1
            run_sfdisk = True

        if args.srv_size is not None:
            table += 'size={}, type={}, name="Server Data Partition"\n'.format(args.srv_size // 512, GPT_SRV)
            args.srv_partno = pn
            pn += 1
            run_sfdisk = True

    if args.output_format != OutputFormat.raw_squashfs:
        table += 'type={}, attrs={}, name="Root Partition"\n'.format(GPT_ROOT_NATIVE, "GUID:60" if args.read_only and args.output_format != OutputFormat.raw_btrfs else "")
        run_sfdisk = True

    args.root_partno = pn
    pn += 1

    if args.verity:
        args.verity_partno = pn
        pn += 1
    else:
        args.verity_partno = None

    return table, run_sfdisk


def create_image(args, workspace, for_cache):
    if args.output_format not in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs):
        return None

    with complete_step('Creating partition table',
                       'Created partition table as {.name}') as output:

        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(dir=os.path.dirname(args.output), prefix='.mkosi-', delete=not for_cache)
        output.append(f)
        disable_cow(f.name)
        f.truncate(image_size(args))

        table, run_sfdisk = determine_partition_table(args)

        if run_sfdisk:
            subprocess.run(["sfdisk", "--color=never", f.name], input=table.encode("utf-8"), check=True)
            subprocess.run(["sync"])

        args.ran_sfdisk = run_sfdisk

    return f

def reuse_cache_image(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache):

    if not args.incremental:
        return None, False
    if for_cache:
        return None, False
    if args.output_format not in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs):
        return None, False

    fname = args.cache_pre_dev if run_build_script else args.cache_pre_inst
    if fname is None:
        return None, False

    with complete_step('Basing off cached image ' + fname,
                       'Copied cached image as {.name}') as output:

        try:
            source = open(fname, "rb")
        except FileNotFoundError:
            return None, False

        with source:
            f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(dir = os.path.dirname(args.output), prefix='.mkosi-')
            output.append(f)
            disable_cow(f.name)
            shutil.copyfileobj(source, f)

        table, run_sfdisk = determine_partition_table(args)
        args.ran_sfdisk = run_sfdisk

    return f, True

@contextlib.contextmanager
def attach_image_loopback(args, raw):
    if raw is None:
        yield None
        return

    with complete_step('Attaching image file',
                       'Attached image file as {}') as output:
        c = subprocess.run(["losetup", "--find", "--show", "--partscan", raw.name],
                           stdout=subprocess.PIPE, check=True)
        loopdev = c.stdout.decode("utf-8").strip()
        output.append(loopdev)

    try:
        yield loopdev
    finally:
        with complete_step('Detaching image file'):
            subprocess.run(["losetup", "--detach", loopdev], check=True)

def partition(loopdev, partno):
    if partno is None:
        return None

    return loopdev + "p" + str(partno)

def prepare_swap(args, loopdev, cached):
    if loopdev is None:
        return
    if cached:
        return
    if args.swap_partno is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Formatting swap partition'):
        subprocess.run(["mkswap", "-Lswap", partition(loopdev, args.swap_partno)],
                       check=True)

def prepare_esp(args, loopdev, cached):
    if loopdev is None:
        return
    if cached:
        return
    if args.esp_partno is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Formatting ESP partition'):
        subprocess.run(["mkfs.fat", "-nEFI", "-F32", partition(loopdev, args.esp_partno)],
                       check=True)

def mkfs_ext4(label, mount, dev):
    subprocess.run(["mkfs.ext4", "-L", label, "-M", mount, dev], check=True)

def mkfs_btrfs(label, dev):
    subprocess.run(["mkfs.btrfs", "-L", label, "-d", "single", "-m", "single", dev], check=True)

def luks_format(dev, passphrase):

    if passphrase['type'] == 'stdin':
        passphrase = (passphrase['content'] + "\n").encode("utf-8")
        subprocess.run(["cryptsetup", "luksFormat", "--batch-mode", dev], input=passphrase, check=True)
    else:
        assert passphrase['type'] == 'file'
        subprocess.run(["cryptsetup", "luksFormat", "--batch-mode", dev, passphrase['content']], check=True)

def luks_open(dev, passphrase):

    name = str(uuid.uuid4())

    if passphrase['type'] == 'stdin':
        passphrase = (passphrase['content'] + "\n").encode("utf-8")
        subprocess.run(["cryptsetup", "open", "--type", "luks", dev, name], input=passphrase, check=True)
    else:
        assert passphrase['type'] == 'file'
        subprocess.run(["cryptsetup", "--key-file", passphrase['content'], "open", "--type", "luks", dev, name], check=True)

    return os.path.join("/dev/mapper", name)

def luks_close(dev, text):
    if dev is None:
        return

    with complete_step(text):
        subprocess.run(["cryptsetup", "close", dev], check=True)

def luks_format_root(args, loopdev, run_build_script, cached, inserting_squashfs=False):

    if args.encrypt != "all":
        return
    if args.root_partno is None:
        return
    if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_squashfs and not inserting_squashfs:
        return
    if run_build_script:
        return
    if cached:
        return

    with complete_step("LUKS formatting root partition"):
        luks_format(partition(loopdev, args.root_partno), args.passphrase)

def luks_format_home(args, loopdev, run_build_script, cached):

    if args.encrypt is None:
        return
    if args.home_partno is None:
        return
    if run_build_script:
        return
    if cached:
        return

    with complete_step("LUKS formatting home partition"):
        luks_format(partition(loopdev, args.home_partno), args.passphrase)

def luks_format_srv(args, loopdev, run_build_script, cached):

    if args.encrypt is None:
        return
    if args.srv_partno is None:
        return
    if run_build_script:
        return
    if cached:
        return

    with complete_step("LUKS formatting server data partition"):
        luks_format(partition(loopdev, args.srv_partno), args.passphrase)

def luks_setup_root(args, loopdev, run_build_script, inserting_squashfs=False):

    if args.encrypt != "all":
        return None
    if args.root_partno is None:
        return None
    if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_squashfs and not inserting_squashfs:
        return None
    if run_build_script:
        return None

    with complete_step("Opening LUKS root partition"):
        return luks_open(partition(loopdev, args.root_partno), args.passphrase)

def luks_setup_home(args, loopdev, run_build_script):

    if args.encrypt is None:
        return None
    if args.home_partno is None:
        return None
    if run_build_script:
        return None

    with complete_step("Opening LUKS home partition"):
        return luks_open(partition(loopdev, args.home_partno), args.passphrase)

def luks_setup_srv(args, loopdev, run_build_script):

    if args.encrypt is None:
        return None
    if args.srv_partno is None:
        return None
    if run_build_script:
        return None

    with complete_step("Opening LUKS server data partition"):
        return luks_open(partition(loopdev, args.srv_partno), args.passphrase)

@contextlib.contextmanager
def luks_setup_all(args, loopdev, run_build_script):

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.directory, OutputFormat.subvolume, OutputFormat.tar):
        yield (None, None, None)
        return

    try:
        root = luks_setup_root(args, loopdev, run_build_script)
        try:
            home = luks_setup_home(args, loopdev, run_build_script)
            try:
                srv = luks_setup_srv(args, loopdev, run_build_script)

                yield (partition(loopdev, args.root_partno) if root is None else root, \
                       partition(loopdev, args.home_partno) if home is None else home, \
                       partition(loopdev, args.srv_partno) if srv is None else srv)
            finally:
                luks_close(srv, "Closing LUKS server data partition")
        finally:
            luks_close(home, "Closing LUKS home partition")
    finally:
        luks_close(root, "Closing LUKS root partition")

def prepare_root(args, dev, cached):
    if dev is None:
        return
    if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_squashfs:
        return
    if cached:
        return

    with complete_step('Formatting root partition'):
        if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_btrfs:
            mkfs_btrfs("root", dev)
        else:
            mkfs_ext4("root", "/", dev)

def prepare_home(args, dev, cached):
    if dev is None:
        return
    if cached:
        return

    with complete_step('Formatting home partition'):
        mkfs_ext4("home", "/home", dev)

def prepare_srv(args, dev, cached):
    if dev is None:
        return
    if cached:
        return

    with complete_step('Formatting server data partition'):
        mkfs_ext4("srv", "/srv", dev)

def mount_loop(args, dev, where, read_only=False):
    os.makedirs(where, 0o755, True)

    options = "-odiscard"

    if args.compress and args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_btrfs:
        options += ",compress"

    if read_only:
        options += ",ro"

    subprocess.run(["mount", "-n", dev, where, options], check=True)

def mount_bind(what, where):
    os.makedirs(where, 0o755, True)
    subprocess.run(["mount", "--bind", what, where], check=True)

def mount_tmpfs(where):
    os.makedirs(where, 0o755, True)
    subprocess.run(["mount", "tmpfs", "-t", "tmpfs", where], check=True)

@contextlib.contextmanager
def mount_image(args, workspace, loopdev, root_dev, home_dev, srv_dev, root_read_only=False):
    if loopdev is None:
        yield None
        return

    with complete_step('Mounting image'):
        root = os.path.join(workspace, "root")

        if args.output_format != OutputFormat.raw_squashfs:
            mount_loop(args, root_dev, root, root_read_only)

        if home_dev is not None:
            mount_loop(args, home_dev, os.path.join(root, "home"))

        if srv_dev is not None:
            mount_loop(args, srv_dev, os.path.join(root, "srv"))

        if args.esp_partno is not None:
            mount_loop(args, partition(loopdev, args.esp_partno), os.path.join(root, "efi"))

        # Make sure /tmp and /run are not part of the image
        mount_tmpfs(os.path.join(root, "run"))
        mount_tmpfs(os.path.join(root, "tmp"))

    try:
        yield
    finally:
        with complete_step('Unmounting image'):

            for d in ("home", "srv", "efi", "run", "tmp"):
                umount(os.path.join(root, d))

            umount(root)

@complete_step("Assigning hostname")
def assign_hostname(args, workspace):
    root = os.path.join(workspace, "root")
    hostname_path = os.path.join(root, "etc/hostname")

    if os.path.isfile(hostname_path):
        os.remove(hostname_path)

    if args.hostname:
        if os.path.islink(hostname_path) or os.path.isfile(hostname_path):
            os.remove(hostname_path)
        with open(hostname_path, "w+") as f:
            f.write("{}\n".format(args.hostname))

@contextlib.contextmanager
def mount_api_vfs(args, workspace):
    paths = ('/proc', '/dev', '/sys')
    root = os.path.join(workspace, "root")

    with complete_step('Mounting API VFS'):
        for d in paths:
            mount_bind(d, root + d)
    try:
        yield
    finally:
        with complete_step('Unmounting API VFS'):
            for d in paths:
                umount(root + d)

@contextlib.contextmanager
def mount_cache(args, workspace):

    if args.cache_path is None:
        yield
        return

    # We can't do this in mount_image() yet, as /var itself might have to be created as a subvolume first
    with complete_step('Mounting Package Cache'):
        if args.distribution in (Distribution.fedora, Distribution.mageia):
            mount_bind(args.cache_path, os.path.join(workspace, "root", "var/cache/dnf"))
        elif args.distribution in (Distribution.debian, Distribution.ubuntu):
            mount_bind(args.cache_path, os.path.join(workspace, "root", "var/cache/apt/archives"))
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.arch:
            mount_bind(args.cache_path, os.path.join(workspace, "root", "var/cache/pacman/pkg"))
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.opensuse:
            mount_bind(args.cache_path, os.path.join(workspace, "root", "var/cache/zypp/packages"))
    try:
        yield
    finally:
        with complete_step('Unmounting Package Cache'):
            for d in ("var/cache/dnf", "var/cache/apt/archives", "var/cache/pacman/pkg", "var/cache/zypp/packages"):
                umount(os.path.join(workspace, "root", d))

def umount(where):
    # Ignore failures and error messages
    subprocess.run(["umount", "-n", where], stdout=subprocess.DEVNULL, stderr=subprocess.DEVNULL)

@complete_step('Setting up basic OS tree')
def prepare_tree(args, workspace, run_build_script, cached):

    if args.output_format == OutputFormat.subvolume:
        btrfs_subvol_create(os.path.join(workspace, "root"))
    else:
        try:
            os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root"))
        except FileExistsError:
            pass

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.subvolume, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs):

        if cached and args.output_format is OutputFormat.raw_btrfs:
            return

        btrfs_subvol_create(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "home"))
        btrfs_subvol_create(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "srv"))
        btrfs_subvol_create(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "var"))
        btrfs_subvol_create(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "var/tmp"), 0o1777)
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "var/lib"))
        btrfs_subvol_create(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "var/lib/machines"), 0o700)

    if cached:
        return

    if args.bootable:
        # We need an initialized machine ID for the boot logic to work
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc"), 0o755)
        open(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/machine-id"), "w").write(args.machine_id + "\n")

        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "efi/EFI"), 0o700)
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "efi/EFI/BOOT"), 0o700)
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "efi/EFI/Linux"), 0o700)
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "efi/EFI/systemd"), 0o700)
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "efi/loader"), 0o700)
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "efi/loader/entries"), 0o700)
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "efi", args.machine_id), 0o700)

        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "boot"), 0o700)
        os.symlink("../efi", os.path.join(workspace, "root", "boot/efi"))
        os.symlink("efi/loader", os.path.join(workspace, "root", "boot/loader"))
        os.symlink("efi/" + args.machine_id, os.path.join(workspace, "root", "boot", args.machine_id))

        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/kernel"), 0o755)

        with open(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/kernel/cmdline"), "w") as cmdline:
            cmdline.write(args.kernel_commandline)
            cmdline.write("\n")

    if run_build_script:
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "root"), 0o750)
        os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "root/dest"), 0o755)

def patch_file(filepath, line_rewriter):
    temp_new_filepath = filepath + ".tmp.new"

    with open(filepath, "r") as old:
        with open(temp_new_filepath, "w") as new:
            for line in old:
                new.write(line_rewriter(line))

    shutil.copystat(filepath, temp_new_filepath)
    os.remove(filepath)
    shutil.move(temp_new_filepath, filepath)

def fix_hosts_line_in_nsswitch(line):
    if line.startswith("hosts:"):
        sources = line.split(" ")
        if 'resolve' not in sources:
            return " ".join(["resolve" if w == "dns" else w for w in sources])
    return line

def enable_networkd(workspace):
    subprocess.run(["systemctl",
                    "--root", os.path.join(workspace, "root"),
                    "enable", "systemd-networkd", "systemd-resolved"],
                   check=True)

    os.remove(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/resolv.conf"))
    os.symlink("../usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf", os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/resolv.conf"))

    patch_file(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/nsswitch.conf"), fix_hosts_line_in_nsswitch)

    with open(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/systemd/network/all-ethernet.network"), "w") as f:
        f.write("""\
[Match]
Type=ether

[Network]
DHCP=yes
""")

def run_workspace_command(args, workspace, *cmd, network=False, env={}):

    cmdline = ["systemd-nspawn",
               '--quiet',
               "--directory=" + os.path.join(workspace, "root"),
               "--uuid=" + args.machine_id,
               "--machine=mkosi-" + uuid.uuid4().hex,
               "--as-pid2",
               "--register=no",
               "--bind=" + var_tmp(workspace) + ":/var/tmp" ]

    if not network:
        cmdline += ["--private-network"]

    cmdline += [ "--setenv={}={}".format(k,v) for k,v in env.items() ]

    cmdline += ['--', *cmd]
    subprocess.run(cmdline, check=True)

def check_if_url_exists(url):
    req = urllib.request.Request(url, method="HEAD")
    try:
        if urllib.request.urlopen(req):
            return True
    except:
        return False

def disable_kernel_install(args, workspace):

    # Let's disable the automatic kernel installation done by the
    # kernel RPMs. After all, we want to built our own unified kernels
    # that include the root hash in the kernel command line and can be
    # signed as a single EFI executable. Since the root hash is only
    # known when the root file system is finalized we turn off any
    # kernel installation beforehand.

    if not args.bootable:
        return

    for d in ("etc", "etc/kernel", "etc/kernel/install.d"):
        try:
            os.mkdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", d), 0o755)
        except FileExistsError:
            pass

    for f in ("50-dracut.install", "51-dracut-rescue.install", "90-loaderentry.install"):
        os.symlink("/dev/null", os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/kernel/install.d", f))

def invoke_dnf(args, workspace, repositories, base_packages, boot_packages):

    repos = ["--enablerepo=" + repo for repo in repositories]

    root = os.path.join(workspace, "root")
    cmdline = ["dnf",
               "-y",
               "--config=" + os.path.join(workspace, "dnf.conf"),
               "--best",
               "--allowerasing",
               "--releasever=" + args.release,
               "--installroot=" + root,
               "--disablerepo=*",
               *repos,
               "--setopt=keepcache=1",
               "--setopt=install_weak_deps=0"]

    # Turn off docs, but not during the development build, as dnf currently has problems with that
    if not args.with_docs and not run_build_script:
        cmdline.append("--setopt=tsflags=nodocs")

    cmdline.extend([
               "install",
               *base_packages
               ])

    if args.packages is not None:
        cmdline.extend(args.packages)

    if run_build_script and args.build_packages is not None:
        cmdline.extend(args.build_packages)

    if args.bootable:
        cmdline.extend(boot_packages)

        # Temporary hack: dracut only adds crypto support to the initrd, if the cryptsetup binary is installed
        if args.encrypt or args.verity:
            cmdline.append("cryptsetup")

        if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_gpt:
            cmdline.append("e2fsprogs")

        if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_btrfs:
            cmdline.append("btrfs-progs")

    with mount_api_vfs(args, workspace):
        subprocess.run(cmdline, check=True)

@complete_step('Installing Fedora')
def install_fedora(args, workspace, run_build_script):

    disable_kernel_install(args, workspace)

    gpg_key = "/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora-%s-x86_64" % args.release
    if os.path.exists(gpg_key):
        gpg_key = "file://%s" % gpg_key
    else:
        gpg_key = "https://getfedora.org/static/%s.txt" % FEDORA_KEYS_MAP[args.release]

    if args.mirror:
        baseurl = "{args.mirror}/releases/{args.release}/Everything/x86_64/os/".format(args=args)
        if not check_if_url_exists("%s/media.repo" % baseurl):
            baseurl = "{args.mirror}/development/{args.release}/Everything/x86_64/os/".format(args=args)

        release_url = "baseurl=%s" % baseurl
        updates_url = "baseurl={args.mirror}/updates/{args.release}/x86_64/".format(args=args)
    else:
        release_url = ("metalink=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?" +
                       "repo=fedora-{args.release}&arch=x86_64".format(args=args))
        updates_url = ("metalink=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?" +
                       "repo=updates-released-f{args.release}&arch=x86_64".format(args=args))

    with open(os.path.join(workspace, "dnf.conf"), "w") as f:
        f.write("""\
[main]
gpgcheck=1

[fedora]
name=Fedora {args.release} - base
{release_url}
gpgkey={gpg_key}

[updates]
name=Fedora {args.release} - updates
{updates_url}
gpgkey={gpg_key}
""".format(args=args,
           gpg_key=gpg_key,
           release_url=release_url,
           updates_url=updates_url))

    invoke_dnf(args, workspace,
        args.repositories if args.repositories else ["fedora", "updates"],
        ["systemd", "fedora-release", "passwd"],
        ["kernel", "systemd-udev", "binutils"])

@complete_step('Installing Mageia')
def install_mageia(args, workspace, run_build_script):

    disable_kernel_install(args, workspace)

    # Mageia does not (yet) have RPM GPG key on the web
    gpg_key = '/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Mageia'
    if os.path.exists(gpg_key):
        gpg_key = "file://%s" % gpg_key
#    else:
#        gpg_key = "https://getfedora.org/static/%s.txt" % FEDORA_KEYS_MAP[args.release]

    if args.mirror:
        baseurl = "{args.mirror}/distrib/{args.release}/x86_64/media/core/".format(args=args)
        release_url = "baseurl=%s/release/" % baseurl
        updates_url = "baseurl=%s/updates/" % baseurl
    else:
        baseurl = "https://www.mageia.org/mirrorlist/?release={args.release}&arch=x86_64&section=core".format(args=args)
        release_url = "mirrorlist=%s&repo=release" % baseurl
        updates_url = "mirrorlist=%s&repo=updates" % baseurl

    with open(os.path.join(workspace, "dnf.conf"), "w") as f:
        f.write("""\
[main]
gpgcheck=1

[mageia]
name=Mageia {args.release} Core Release
{release_url}
gpgkey={gpg_key}

[updates]
name=Mageia {args.release} Core Updates
{updates_url}
gpgkey={gpg_key}
""".format(args=args,
           gpg_key=gpg_key,
           release_url=release_url,
           updates_url=updates_url))

    invoke_dnf(args, workspace,
        args.repositories if args.repositories else ["mageia", "updates"],
        ["basesystem-minimal"],
        ["kernel-server-latest", "binutils"])

def install_debian_or_ubuntu(args, workspace, run_build_script, mirror):
    if args.repositories:
        components = ','.join(args.repositories)
    else:
        components = 'main'
    cmdline = ["debootstrap",
               "--verbose",
               "--merged-usr",
               "--variant=minbase",
               "--include=systemd-sysv",
               "--exclude=sysv-rc,initscripts,startpar,lsb-base,insserv",
               "--components=" + components,
               args.release,
               workspace + "/root",
               mirror]
    if args.bootable and args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_btrfs:
        cmdline[4] += ",btrfs-tools"

    subprocess.run(cmdline, check=True)

    # Debootstrap is not smart enough to deal correctly with alternative dependencies
    # Installing libpam-systemd via debootstrap results in systemd-shim being installed
    # Therefore, prefer to install via apt from inside the container
    extra_packages = [ 'dbus', 'libpam-systemd']

    # Also install extra packages via the secondary APT run, because it is smarter and
    # can deal better with any conflicts
    if args.packages is not None:
        extra_packages += args.packages

    if run_build_script and args.build_packages is not None:
        extra_packages += args.build_packages

    # Work around debian bug #835628
    os.makedirs(os.path.join(workspace, "root/etc/dracut.conf.d"), exist_ok=True)
    with open(os.path.join(workspace, "root/etc/dracut.conf.d/99-generic.conf"), "w") as f:
        f.write("hostonly=no")

    if args.bootable:
        extra_packages += ["linux-image-amd64", "dracut"]

    if extra_packages:
        # Debian policy is to start daemons by default.
        # The policy-rc.d script can be used choose which ones to start
        # Let's install one that denies all daemon startups
        # See https://people.debian.org/~hmh/invokerc.d-policyrc.d-specification.txt
        # Note: despite writing in /usr/sbin, this file is not shipped by the OS
        # and instead should be managed by the admin.
        policyrcd = os.path.join(workspace, "root/usr/sbin/policy-rc.d")
        with open(policyrcd, "w") as f:
            f.write("#!/bin/sh\n")
            f.write("exit 101")
        os.chmod(policyrcd, 0o755)
        if not args.with_docs:
            # Create dpkg.cfg to ingore documentation
            dpkg_conf = os.path.join(workspace, "root/etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/01_nodoc")
            with open(dpkg_conf, "w") as f:
                f.writelines([
                    'path-exclude /usr/share/locale/*\n',
                    'path-exclude /usr/share/doc/*\n',
                    'path-exclude /usr/share/man/*\n',
                    'path-exclude /usr/share/groff/*\n',
                    'path-exclude /usr/share/info/*\n',
                    'path-exclude /usr/share/lintian/*\n',
                    'path-exclude /usr/share/linda/*\n',
                ])

        cmdline = ["/usr/bin/apt-get", "--assume-yes", "--no-install-recommends", "install"] + extra_packages
        run_workspace_command(args, workspace, network=True, env={'DEBIAN_FRONTEND': 'noninteractive', 'DEBCONF_NONINTERACTIVE_SEEN': 'true'}, *cmdline)
        os.unlink(policyrcd)

@complete_step('Installing Debian')
def install_debian(args, workspace, run_build_script):
    install_debian_or_ubuntu(args, workspace, run_build_script, args.mirror)

@complete_step('Installing Ubuntu')
def install_ubuntu(args, workspace, run_build_script):
    install_debian_or_ubuntu(args, workspace, run_build_script, args.mirror)

@complete_step('Installing Arch Linux')
def install_arch(args, workspace, run_build_script):
    if args.release is not None:
        sys.stderr.write("Distribution release specification is not supported for Arch Linux, ignoring.\n")

    keyring = "archlinux"

    if platform.machine() == "aarch64":
        keyring += "arm"

    subprocess.run(["pacman-key", "--nocolor", "--init"], check=True)
    subprocess.run(["pacman-key", "--nocolor", "--populate", keyring], check=True)

    if platform.machine() == "aarch64":
        server = "Server = {}/$arch/$repo".format(args.mirror)
    else:
        server = "Server = {}/$repo/os/$arch".format(args.mirror)

    with open(os.path.join(workspace, "pacman.conf"), "w") as f:
        f.write("""\
[options]
LogFile     = /dev/null
HookDir     = /no_hook/
HoldPkg     = pacman glibc
Architecture = auto
UseSyslog
Color
CheckSpace
SigLevel    = Required DatabaseOptional

[core]
{server}

[extra]
{server}

[community]
{server}
""".format(args=args, server=server))

    subprocess.run(["pacman", "--color", "never", "--config", os.path.join(workspace, "pacman.conf"), "-Sy"], check=True)
    c = subprocess.run(["pacman", "--color", "never", "--config", os.path.join(workspace, "pacman.conf"), "-Sg", "base"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, universal_newlines=True, check=True)
    packages = set(c.stdout.split())
    packages.remove("base")

    packages -= {"cryptsetup",
                 "device-mapper",
                 "dhcpcd",
                 "e2fsprogs",
                 "jfsutils",
                 "lvm2",
                 "man-db",
                 "man-pages",
                 "mdadm",
                 "netctl",
                 "pcmciautils",
                 "reiserfsprogs",
                 "xfsprogs"}

    if args.bootable:
        if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_gpt:
            packages.add("e2fsprogs")
        elif args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_btrfs:
            packages.add("btrfs-progs")
    else:
        if "linux" in packages:
            packages.remove("linux")

    if args.packages is not None:
        packages |= set(args.packages)

    if run_build_script and args.build_packages is not None:
        packages |= set(args.build_packages)

    cmdline = ["pacstrap",
               "-C", os.path.join(workspace, "pacman.conf"),
               "-d",
               workspace + "/root"] + \
               list(packages)

    subprocess.run(cmdline, check=True)

    enable_networkd(workspace)

@complete_step('Installing openSUSE')
def install_opensuse(args, workspace, run_build_script):

    root = os.path.join(workspace, "root")
    release = args.release.strip('"')

    #
    # If the release looks like a timestamp, it's Tumbleweed.
    # 13.x is legacy (14.x won't ever appear). For anything else,
    # let's default to Leap.
    #
    if release.isdigit() or release == "tumbleweed":
        release_url = "{}/tumbleweed/repo/oss/".format(args.mirror)
        updates_url = "{}/update/tumbleweed/".format(args.mirror)
    elif release.startswith("13."):
        release_url = "{}/distribution/{}/repo/oss/".format(args.mirror, release)
        updates_url = "{}/update/{}/".format(args.mirror, release)
    else:
        release_url = "{}/distribution/leap/{}/repo/oss/".format(args.mirror, release)
        updates_url = "{}/update/leap/{}/oss/".format(args.mirror, release)

    #
    # Configure the repositories: we need to enable packages caching
    # here to make sure that the package cache stays populated after
    # "zypper install".
    #
    subprocess.run(["zypper", "--root", root, "addrepo", "-ck", release_url, "Main"], check=True)
    subprocess.run(["zypper", "--root", root, "addrepo", "-ck", updates_url, "Updates"], check=True)

    if not args.with_docs:
        with open(os.path.join(root, "etc/zypp/zypp.conf"), "w") as f:
            f.write("rpm.install.excludedocs = yes\n")

    # The common part of the install comand.
    cmdline = ["zypper", "--root", root, "--gpg-auto-import-keys",
               "install", "-y", "--no-recommends"]
    #
    # Install the "minimal" package set.
    #
    subprocess.run(cmdline + ["-t", "pattern", "minimal_base"], check=True)

    #
    # Now install the additional packages if necessary.
    #
    extra_packages = []

    if args.bootable:
        extra_packages += ["kernel-default"]

    if args.encrypt:
        extra_packages += ["device-mapper"]

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.subvolume, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs):
        extra_packages += ["btrfsprogs"]

    if args.packages:
        extra_packages += args.packages

    if run_build_script and args.build_packages is not None:
        extra_packages += args.build_packages

    if extra_packages:
        subprocess.run(cmdline + extra_packages, check=True)

    #
    # Disable packages caching in the image that was enabled
    # previously to populate the package cache.
    #
    subprocess.run(["zypper", "--root", root, "modifyrepo", "-K", "Main"], check=True)
    subprocess.run(["zypper", "--root", root, "modifyrepo", "-K", "Updates"], check=True)

    #
    # Tune dracut confs: openSUSE uses an old version of dracut that's
    # probably explain why we need to do those hacks.
    #
    if args.bootable:
        os.makedirs(os.path.join(root, "etc/dracut.conf.d"), exist_ok=True)

        with open(os.path.join(root, "etc/dracut.conf.d/99-mkosi.conf"), "w") as f:
            f.write("hostonly=no\n")

        # dracut from openSUSE is missing upstream commit 016613c774baf.
        with open(os.path.join(root, "etc/kernel/cmdline"), "w") as cmdline:
            cmdline.write(args.kernel_commandline + " root=/dev/gpt-auto-root\n")

def install_distribution(args, workspace, run_build_script, cached):

    if cached:
        return

    install = {
        Distribution.fedora : install_fedora,
        Distribution.mageia : install_mageia,
        Distribution.debian : install_debian,
        Distribution.ubuntu : install_ubuntu,
        Distribution.arch : install_arch,
        Distribution.opensuse : install_opensuse,
    }

    install[args.distribution](args, workspace, run_build_script)
    assign_hostname(args, workspace)

def reset_machine_id(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache):
    """Make /etc/machine-id an empty file.

    This way, on the next boot is either initialized and commited (if /etc is
    writable) or the image runs with a transient machine ID, that changes on
    each boot (if the image is read-only).
    """

    if run_build_script:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    with complete_step('Resetting machine ID'):
        machine_id = os.path.join(workspace, 'root', 'etc/machine-id')
        os.unlink(machine_id)
        open(machine_id, "w+b").close()
        dbus_machine_id = os.path.join(workspace, 'root', 'var/lib/dbus/machine-id')
        try:
            os.unlink(dbus_machine_id)
        except FileNotFoundError:
            pass
        else:
            os.symlink('../../../etc/machine-id', dbus_machine_id)

def set_root_password(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache):
    "Set the root account password, or just delete it so it's easy to log in"

    if run_build_script:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    if args.password == '':
        print_step("Deleting root password...")
        jj = lambda line: (':'.join(['root', ''] + line.split(':')[2:])
                           if line.startswith('root:') else line)
        patch_file(os.path.join(workspace, 'root', 'etc/passwd'), jj)
    elif args.password:
        print_step("Setting root password...")
        password = crypt.crypt(args.password, crypt.mksalt(crypt.METHOD_SHA512))
        jj = lambda line: (':'.join(['root', password] + line.split(':')[2:])
                           if line.startswith('root:') else line)
        patch_file(os.path.join(workspace, 'root', 'etc/shadow'), jj)

def run_postinst_script(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache):

    if args.postinst_script is None:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    with complete_step('Running post installation script'):

        # We copy the postinst script into the build tree. We'd prefer
        # mounting it into the tree, but for that we'd need a good
        # place to mount it to. But if we create that we might as well
        # just copy the file anyway.

        shutil.copy2(args.postinst_script,
                     os.path.join(workspace, "root", "root/postinst"))

        run_workspace_command(args, workspace, "/root/postinst", "build" if run_build_script else "final", network=args.with_network)
        os.unlink(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "root/postinst"))

def install_boot_loader_arch(args, workspace):
    patch_file(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "etc/mkinitcpio.conf"),
               lambda line: "HOOKS=\"systemd modconf block filesystems fsck\"\n" if line.startswith("HOOKS=") else line)

    kernel_version = next(filter(lambda x: x[0].isdigit(), os.listdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "lib/modules"))))

    run_workspace_command(args, workspace,
                      "/usr/bin/kernel-install", "add", kernel_version, "/boot/vmlinuz-linux")

def install_boot_loader_debian(args, workspace):
    kernel_version = next(filter(lambda x: x[0].isdigit(), os.listdir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "lib/modules"))))

    run_workspace_command(args, workspace,
                    "/usr/bin/kernel-install", "add", kernel_version, "/boot/vmlinuz-" + kernel_version)

def install_boot_loader_opensuse(args, workspace):
    install_boot_loader_debian(args, workspace)

def install_boot_loader(args, workspace, cached):
    if not args.bootable:
        return

    if cached:
        return

    with complete_step("Installing boot loader"):
        shutil.copyfile(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "usr/lib/systemd/boot/efi/systemd-bootx64.efi"),
                        os.path.join(workspace, "root", "boot/efi/EFI/systemd/systemd-bootx64.efi"))

        shutil.copyfile(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "usr/lib/systemd/boot/efi/systemd-bootx64.efi"),
                        os.path.join(workspace, "root", "boot/efi/EFI/BOOT/bootx64.efi"))

        if args.distribution == Distribution.arch:
            install_boot_loader_arch(args, workspace)

        if args.distribution == Distribution.debian:
            install_boot_loader_debian(args, workspace)

        if args.distribution == Distribution.opensuse:
            install_boot_loader_opensuse(args, workspace)

def enumerate_and_copy(source, dest, suffix = ""):
    for entry in os.scandir(source + suffix):
        dest_path = dest + suffix + "/" + entry.name

        if entry.is_dir():
            os.makedirs(dest_path,
                        mode=entry.stat(follow_symlinks=False).st_mode & 0o7777,
                        exist_ok=True)
            enumerate_and_copy(source, dest, suffix + "/" + entry.name)
        else:
            try:
                os.unlink(dest_path)
            except:
                pass

            shutil.copy(entry.path, dest_path, follow_symlinks=False)

        shutil.copystat(entry.path, dest_path, follow_symlinks=False)

def install_extra_trees(args, workspace, for_cache):
    if args.extra_trees is None:
        return

    if for_cache:
        return

    with complete_step('Copying in extra file trees'):
        for d in args.extra_trees:
            enumerate_and_copy(d, os.path.join(workspace, "root"))

def copy_git_files(src, dest, *, git_files):
    subprocess.run(['git', 'clone', '--depth=1', '--recursive', '--shallow-submodules', src, dest],
                   check=True)

    what_files = ['--exclude-standard', '--modified']
    if git_files == 'others':
        what_files += ['--others', '--exclude=.mkosi-*']

    # everything that's modified from the tree
    c = subprocess.run(['git', '-C', src, 'ls-files', '-z'] + what_files,
                       stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
                       universal_newlines=False,
                       check=True)
    files = {x.decode("utf-8") for x in c.stdout.rstrip(b'\0').split(b'\0')}

    # everything that's modified and about to be committed
    c = subprocess.run(['git', '-C', src, 'diff', '--cached', '--name-only', '-z'],
                       stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
                       universal_newlines=False,
                       check=True)
    files |= {x.decode("utf-8") for x in c.stdout.rstrip(b'\0').split(b'\0')}
    files.discard('')

    del c

    for path in files:
        src_path = os.path.join(src, path)
        dest_path = os.path.join(dest, path)

        directory = os.path.dirname(dest_path)
        os.makedirs(directory, exist_ok=True)

        shutil.copy2(src_path, dest_path, follow_symlinks=False)

def install_build_src(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache):
    if not run_build_script:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    if args.build_script is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Copying in build script and sources'):
        shutil.copy(args.build_script,
                    os.path.join(workspace, "root", "root", os.path.basename(args.build_script)))

        if args.build_sources is not None:
            target = os.path.join(workspace, "root", "root/src")
            use_git = args.use_git_files
            if use_git is None:
                use_git = os.path.exists('.git') or os.path.exists(os.path.join(args.build_sources, '.git'))

            if use_git:
                copy_git_files(args.build_sources, target, git_files=args.git_files)
            else:
                ignore = shutil.ignore_patterns('.git', '.mkosi-*')
                shutil.copytree(args.build_sources, target, symlinks=True, ignore=ignore)

def install_build_dest(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache):
    if run_build_script:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    if args.build_script is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Copying in build tree'):
        enumerate_and_copy(os.path.join(workspace, "dest"), os.path.join(workspace, "root"))

def make_read_only(args, workspace, for_cache):
    if not args.read_only:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    if args.output_format not in (OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.subvolume):
        return

    with complete_step('Marking root subvolume read-only'):
        btrfs_subvol_make_ro(os.path.join(workspace, "root"))

def make_tar(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache):

    if run_build_script:
        return None
    if args.output_format != OutputFormat.tar:
        return None
    if for_cache:
        return None

    with complete_step('Creating archive'):
        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(dir=os.path.dirname(args.output), prefix=".mkosi-")
        subprocess.run(["tar", "-C", os.path.join(workspace, "root"),
                        "-c", "-J", "--xattrs", "--xattrs-include=*", "."],
                       stdout=f, check=True)

    return f

def make_squashfs(args, workspace, for_cache):
    if args.output_format != OutputFormat.raw_squashfs:
        return None
    if for_cache:
        return None

    with complete_step('Creating squashfs file system'):
        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(dir=os.path.dirname(args.output), prefix=".mkosi-squashfs")
        subprocess.run(["mksquashfs", os.path.join(workspace, "root"), f.name, "-comp", "lz4", "-noappend"],
                       check=True)

    return f

def read_partition_table(loopdev):

    table = []
    last_sector = 0

    c = subprocess.run(["sfdisk", "--dump", loopdev], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, check=True)

    in_body = False
    for line in c.stdout.decode("utf-8").split('\n'):
        stripped = line.strip()

        if stripped == "": # empty line is where the body begins
            in_body = True
            continue
        if not in_body:
            continue

        table.append(stripped)

        name, rest = stripped.split(":", 1)
        fields = rest.split(",")

        start = None
        size = None

        for field in fields:
            f = field.strip()

            if f.startswith("start="):
                start = int(f[6:])
            if f.startswith("size="):
                size = int(f[5:])

        if start is not None and size is not None:
            end = start + size
            if end > last_sector:
                last_sector = end

    return table, last_sector * 512

def insert_partition(args, workspace, raw, loopdev, partno, blob, name, type_uuid, uuid = None):

    if args.ran_sfdisk:
        old_table, last_partition_sector = read_partition_table(loopdev)
    else:
        # No partition table yet? Then let's fake one...
        old_table = []
        last_partition_sector = GPT_HEADER_SIZE

    blob_size = roundup512(os.stat(blob.name).st_size)
    luks_extra = 2*1024*1024 if args.encrypt == "all" else 0
    new_size = last_partition_sector + blob_size + luks_extra + GPT_FOOTER_SIZE

    print_step("Resizing disk image to {}...".format(format_bytes(new_size)))

    os.truncate(raw.name, new_size)
    subprocess.run(["losetup", "--set-capacity", loopdev], check=True)

    print_step("Inserting partition of {}...".format(format_bytes(blob_size)))

    table = "label: gpt\n"

    for t in old_table:
        table += t + "\n"

    if uuid is not None:
        table += "uuid=" + str(uuid) + ", "

    table += 'size={}, type={}, attrs=GUID:60, name="{}"\n'.format((blob_size + luks_extra) // 512, type_uuid, name)

    print(table)

    subprocess.run(["sfdisk", "--color=never", loopdev], input=table.encode("utf-8"), check=True)
    subprocess.run(["sync"])

    print_step("Writing partition...")

    if args.root_partno == partno:
        luks_format_root(args, loopdev, False, True)
        dev = luks_setup_root(args, loopdev, False, True)
    else:
        dev = None

    try:
        subprocess.run(["dd", "if=" + blob.name, "of=" + (dev if dev is not None else partition(loopdev, partno))], check=True)
    finally:
        luks_close(dev, "Closing LUKS root partition")

    args.ran_sfdisk = True

    return blob_size

def insert_squashfs(args, workspace, raw, loopdev, squashfs, for_cache):
    if args.output_format != OutputFormat.raw_squashfs:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    with complete_step('Inserting squashfs root partition'):
        args.root_size = insert_partition(args, workspace, raw, loopdev, args.root_partno, squashfs,
                                          "Root Partition", GPT_ROOT_NATIVE)

def make_verity(args, workspace, dev, run_build_script, for_cache):

    if run_build_script or not args.verity:
        return None, None
    if for_cache:
        return None, None

    with complete_step('Generating verity hashes'):
        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(dir=os.path.dirname(args.output), prefix=".mkosi-")
        c = subprocess.run(["veritysetup", "format", dev, f.name],
                           stdout=subprocess.PIPE, check=True)

        for line in c.stdout.decode("utf-8").split('\n'):
            if line.startswith("Root hash:"):
                root_hash = line[10:].strip()
                return f, root_hash

        raise ValueError('Root hash not found')

def insert_verity(args, workspace, raw, loopdev, verity, root_hash, for_cache):

    if verity is None:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    # Use the final 128 bit of the root hash as partition UUID of the verity partition
    u = uuid.UUID(root_hash[-32:])

    with complete_step('Inserting verity partition'):
        insert_partition(args, workspace, raw, loopdev, args.verity_partno, verity,
                         "Verity Partition", GPT_ROOT_NATIVE_VERITY, u)

def patch_root_uuid(args, loopdev, root_hash, for_cache):

    if root_hash is None:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    # Use the first 128bit of the root hash as partition UUID of the root partition
    u = uuid.UUID(root_hash[:32])

    with complete_step('Patching root partition UUID'):
        subprocess.run(["sfdisk", "--part-uuid", loopdev, str(args.root_partno), str(u)],
                       check=True)

def install_unified_kernel(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache, root_hash):

    # Iterates through all kernel versions included in the image and
    # generates a combined kernel+initrd+cmdline+osrelease EFI file
    # from it and places it in the /EFI/Linux directory of the
    # ESP. sd-boot iterates through them and shows them in the
    # menu. These "unified" single-file images have the benefit that
    # they can be signed like normal EFI binaries, and can encode
    # everything necessary to boot a specific root device, including
    # the root hash.

    if not args.bootable:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    if args.distribution not in (Distribution.fedora, Distribution.mageia):
        return

    with complete_step("Generating combined kernel + initrd boot file"):

        cmdline = args.kernel_commandline
        if root_hash is not None:
            cmdline += " roothash=" + root_hash

        for kver in os.scandir(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "usr/lib/modules")):
            if not kver.is_dir():
                continue

            boot_binary = "/efi/EFI/Linux/linux-" + kver.name
            if root_hash is not None:
                boot_binary += "-" + root_hash
            boot_binary += ".efi"

            dracut = ["/usr/bin/dracut",
                      "-v",
                      "--no-hostonly",
                      "--uefi",
                      "--kver", kver.name,
                      "--kernel-cmdline", cmdline ]

            # Temporary fix until dracut includes these in the image anyway
            dracut += ("-i",) + ("/usr/lib/systemd/system/systemd-volatile-root.service",)*2 + \
                      ("-i",) + ("/usr/lib/systemd/systemd-volatile-root",)*2 + \
                      ("-i",) + ("/usr/lib/systemd/systemd-veritysetup",)*2 + \
                      ("-i",) + ("/usr/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-veritysetup-generator",)*2

            if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_squashfs:
                dracut += [ '--add-drivers', 'squashfs' ]

            dracut += [ boot_binary ]

            run_workspace_command(args, workspace, *dracut);

def secure_boot_sign(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache):

    if run_build_script:
        return
    if not args.bootable:
        return
    if not args.secure_boot:
        return
    if for_cache:
        return

    for path, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(os.path.join(workspace, "root", "efi")):
        for i in filenames:
            if not i.endswith(".efi") and not i.endswith(".EFI"):
                continue

            with complete_step("Signing EFI binary {} in ESP".format(i)):
                p = os.path.join(path, i)

                subprocess.run(["sbsign",
                                "--key", args.secure_boot_key,
                                "--cert", args.secure_boot_certificate,
                                "--output", p + ".signed",
                                p], check=True)

                os.rename(p + ".signed", p)

def xz_output(args, raw):
    if args.output_format not in (OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs):
        return raw

    if not args.xz:
        return raw

    with complete_step('Compressing image file'):
        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(prefix=".mkosi-", dir=os.path.dirname(args.output))
        subprocess.run(["xz", "-c", raw.name], stdout=f, check=True)

    return f

def write_root_hash_file(args, root_hash):
    if root_hash is None:
        return None

    with complete_step('Writing .roothash file'):
        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(mode='w+b', prefix='.mkosi',
                                        dir=os.path.dirname(args.output_root_hash_file))
        f.write((root_hash + "\n").encode())

    return f

def copy_nspawn_settings(args):
    if args.nspawn_settings is None:
        return None

    with complete_step('Copying nspawn settings file'):
        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(mode="w+b", prefix=".mkosi-",
                                        dir=os.path.dirname(args.output_nspawn_settings))

        with open(args.nspawn_settings, "rb") as c:
            f.write(c.read())

    return f

def hash_file(of, sf, fname):
    bs = 16*1024**2
    h = hashlib.sha256()

    sf.seek(0)
    buf = sf.read(bs)
    while len(buf) > 0:
        h.update(buf)
        buf = sf.read(bs)

    of.write(h.hexdigest() + " *" + fname + "\n")

def calculate_sha256sum(args, raw, tar, root_hash_file, nspawn_settings):
    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.directory, OutputFormat.subvolume):
        return None

    if not args.checksum:
        return None

    with complete_step('Calculating SHA256SUMS'):
        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(mode="w+", prefix=".mkosi-", encoding="utf-8",
                                        dir=os.path.dirname(args.output_checksum))

        if raw is not None:
            hash_file(f, raw, os.path.basename(args.output))
        if tar is not None:
            hash_file(f, tar, os.path.basename(args.output))
        if root_hash_file is not None:
            hash_file(f, root_hash_file, os.path.basename(args.output_root_hash_file))
        if nspawn_settings is not None:
            hash_file(f, nspawn_settings, os.path.basename(args.output_nspawn_settings))

    return f

def calculate_signature(args, checksum):
    if not args.sign:
        return None

    if checksum is None:
        return None

    with complete_step('Signing SHA256SUMS'):
        f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(mode="wb", prefix=".mkosi-",
                                        dir=os.path.dirname(args.output_signature))

        cmdline = ["gpg", "--detach-sign"]

        if args.key is not None:
            cmdline += ["--default-key", args.key]

        checksum.seek(0)
        subprocess.run(cmdline, stdin=checksum, stdout=f, check=True)

    return f

def save_cache(args, workspace, raw, cache_path):

    if cache_path is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Installing cache copy ',
                       'Successfully installed cache copy ' + cache_path):

        if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_gpt):
            os.chmod(raw, 0o666 & ~args.original_umask)
            shutil.move(raw, cache_path)
        else:
            shutil.move(os.path.join(workspace, "root"), cache_path)

def link_output(args, workspace, raw, tar):
    with complete_step('Linking image file',
                       'Successfully linked ' + args.output):
        if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.directory, OutputFormat.subvolume):
            os.rename(os.path.join(workspace, "root"), args.output)
        elif args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs):
            os.chmod(raw, 0o666 & ~args.original_umask)
            os.link(raw, args.output)
        else:
            os.chmod(tar, 0o666 & ~args.original_umask)
            os.link(tar, args.output)

def link_output_nspawn_settings(args, path):
    if path is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Linking nspawn settings file',
                       'Successfully linked ' + args.output_nspawn_settings):
        os.chmod(path, 0o666 & ~args.original_umask)
        os.link(path, args.output_nspawn_settings)

def link_output_checksum(args, checksum):
    if checksum is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Linking SHA256SUMS file',
                       'Successfully linked ' + args.output_checksum):
        os.chmod(checksum, 0o666 & ~args.original_umask)
        os.link(checksum, args.output_checksum)

def link_output_root_hash_file(args, root_hash_file):
    if root_hash_file is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Linking .roothash file',
                       'Successfully linked ' + args.output_root_hash_file):
        os.chmod(root_hash_file, 0o666 & ~args.original_umask)
        os.link(root_hash_file, args.output_root_hash_file)

def link_output_signature(args, signature):
    if signature is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Linking SHA256SUMS.gpg file',
                       'Successfully linked ' + args.output_signature):
        os.chmod(signature, 0o666 & ~args.original_umask)
        os.link(signature, args.output_signature)

def dir_size(path):
    sum = 0
    for entry in os.scandir(path):
        if entry.is_symlink():
            # We can ignore symlinks because they either point into our tree,
            # in which case we'll include the size of target directory anyway,
            # or outside, in which case we don't need to.
            continue
        elif entry.is_file():
            sum += entry.stat().st_blocks * 512
        elif entry.is_dir():
            sum += dir_size(entry.path)
    return sum

def print_output_size(args):
    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.directory, OutputFormat.subvolume):
        print_step("Resulting image size is " + format_bytes(dir_size(args.output)) + ".")
    else:
        st = os.stat(args.output)
        print_step("Resulting image size is " + format_bytes(st.st_size) + ", consumes " + format_bytes(st.st_blocks * 512) + ".")

def setup_cache(args):
    with complete_step('Setting up package cache',
                       'Setting up package cache {} complete') as output:
        if args.cache_path is None:
            d = tempfile.TemporaryDirectory(dir=os.path.dirname(args.output), prefix=".mkosi-")
            args.cache_path = d.name
        else:
            os.makedirs(args.cache_path, 0o755, exist_ok=True)
            d = None
        output.append(args.cache_path)

    return d

class PackageAction(argparse.Action):
    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
        l = getattr(namespace, self.dest)
        if l is None:
            l = []
        l.extend(values.split(","))
        setattr(namespace, self.dest, l)

def parse_args():
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Build Legacy-Free OS Images', add_help=False)

    group = parser.add_argument_group("Commands")
    group.add_argument("verb", choices=("build", "clean", "help", "summary"), nargs='?', default="build", help='Operation to execute')
    group.add_argument('-h', '--help', action='help', help="Show this help")
    group.add_argument('--version', action='version', version='%(prog)s ' + __version__)

    group = parser.add_argument_group("Distribution")
    group.add_argument('-d', "--distribution", choices=Distribution.__members__, help='Distribution to install')
    group.add_argument('-r', "--release", help='Distribution release to install')
    group.add_argument('-m', "--mirror", help='Distribution mirror to use')
    group.add_argument("--repositories", action=PackageAction, dest='repositories', help='Repositories to use', metavar='REPOS')

    group = parser.add_argument_group("Output")
    group.add_argument('-t', "--format", dest='output_format', choices=OutputFormat.__members__, help='Output Format')
    group.add_argument('-o', "--output", help='Output image path', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument('-f', "--force", action='count', dest='force_count', default=0, help='Remove existing image file before operation')
    group.add_argument('-b', "--bootable", type=parse_boolean, nargs='?', const=True,
                       help='Make image bootable on EFI (only raw_gpt, raw_btrfs, raw_squashfs)')
    group.add_argument("--secure-boot", action='store_true', help='Sign the resulting kernel/initrd image for UEFI SecureBoot')
    group.add_argument("--secure-boot-key", help="UEFI SecureBoot private key in PEM format", metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--secure-boot-certificate", help="UEFI SecureBoot certificate in X509 format", metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--read-only", action='store_true', help='Make root volume read-only (only raw_gpt, raw_btrfs, subvolume, implied on raw_squashs)')
    group.add_argument("--encrypt", choices=("all", "data"), help='Encrypt everything except: ESP ("all") or ESP and root ("data")')
    group.add_argument("--verity", action='store_true', help='Add integrity partition (implies --read-only)')
    group.add_argument("--compress", action='store_true', help='Enable compression in file system (only raw_btrfs, subvolume)')
    group.add_argument("--xz", action='store_true', help='Compress resulting image with xz (only raw_gpt, raw_btrfs, raw_squashfs, implied on tar)')
    group.add_argument('-i', "--incremental", action='store_true', help='Make use of and generate intermediary cache images')

    group = parser.add_argument_group("Packages")
    group.add_argument('-p', "--package", action=PackageAction, dest='packages', help='Add an additional package to the OS image', metavar='PACKAGE')
    group.add_argument("--with-docs", action='store_true', help='Install documentation (only Fedora and Mageia)')
    group.add_argument("--cache", dest='cache_path', help='Package cache path', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--extra-tree", action='append', dest='extra_trees', help='Copy an extra tree on top of image', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--build-script", help='Build script to run inside image', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--build-sources", help='Path for sources to build', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--build-dir", help='Path to use as persistent build directory', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--build-package", action=PackageAction, dest='build_packages', help='Additional packages needed for build script', metavar='PACKAGE')
    group.add_argument("--postinst-script", help='Post installation script to run inside image', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument('--use-git-files', type=parse_boolean,
                       help='Ignore any files that git itself ignores (default: guess)')
    group.add_argument('--git-files', choices=('cached', 'others'),
                       help='Whether to include untracked files (default: others)')
    group.add_argument("--with-network", action='store_true', help='Run build and postinst scripts with network access (instead of private network)')
    group.add_argument("--settings", dest='nspawn_settings', help='Add in .spawn settings file', metavar='PATH')

    group = parser.add_argument_group("Partitions")
    group.add_argument("--root-size", help='Set size of root partition (only raw_gpt, raw_btrfs)', metavar='BYTES')
    group.add_argument("--esp-size", help='Set size of EFI system partition (only raw_gpt, raw_btrfs, raw_squashfs)', metavar='BYTES')
    group.add_argument("--swap-size", help='Set size of swap partition (only raw_gpt, raw_btrfs, raw_squashfs)', metavar='BYTES')
    group.add_argument("--home-size", help='Set size of /home partition (only raw_gpt, raw_squashfs)', metavar='BYTES')
    group.add_argument("--srv-size", help='Set size of /srv partition (only raw_gpt, raw_squashfs)', metavar='BYTES')

    group = parser.add_argument_group("Validation (only raw_gpt, raw_btrfs, raw_squashfs, tar)")
    group.add_argument("--checksum", action='store_true', help='Write SHA256SUMS file')
    group.add_argument("--sign", action='store_true', help='Write and sign SHA256SUMS file')
    group.add_argument("--key", help='GPG key to use for signing')
    group.add_argument("--password", help='Set the root password')

    group = parser.add_argument_group("Additional Configuration")
    group.add_argument('-C', "--directory", help='Change to specified directory before doing anything', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--default", dest='default_path', help='Read configuration data from file', metavar='PATH')
    group.add_argument("--kernel-commandline", help='Set the kernel command line (only bootable images)')
    group.add_argument("--hostname", help="Set hostname")

    try:
        argcomplete.autocomplete(parser)
    except NameError:
        pass

    args = parser.parse_args()

    if args.verb == "help":
        parser.print_help()
        sys.exit(0)

    return args

def parse_bytes(bytes):
    if bytes is None:
        return bytes

    if bytes.endswith('G'):
        factor = 1024**3
    elif bytes.endswith('M'):
        factor = 1024**2
    elif bytes.endswith('K'):
        factor = 1024
    else:
        factor = 1

    if factor > 1:
        bytes = bytes[:-1]

    result = int(bytes) * factor
    if result <= 0:
        raise ValueError("Size out of range")

    if result % 512 != 0:
        raise ValueError("Size not a multiple of 512")

    return result

def detect_distribution():
    try:
        f = open("/etc/os-release")
    except IOError:
        try:
            f = open("/usr/lib/os-release")
        except IOError:
            return None, None

    id = None
    version_id = None

    for ln in f:
        if ln.startswith("ID="):
            id = ln[3:].strip()
        if ln.startswith("VERSION_ID="):
            version_id = ln[11:].strip()

    d = Distribution.__members__.get(id, None)
    return d, version_id

def unlink_try_hard(path):
    try:
        os.unlink(path)
    except:
        pass

    try:
        btrfs_subvol_delete(path)
    except:
        pass

    try:
        shutil.rmtree(path)
    except:
        pass

def empty_directory(path):

    for f in os.listdir(path):
        unlink_try_hard(os.path.join(path, f))

def unlink_output(args):
    if not args.force and args.verb != "clean":
        return

    with complete_step('Removing output files'):
        unlink_try_hard(args.output)

        if args.checksum:
            unlink_try_hard(args.output_checksum)

        if args.verity:
            unlink_try_hard(args.output_root_hash_file)

        if args.sign:
            unlink_try_hard(args.output_signature)

        if args.nspawn_settings is not None:
            unlink_try_hard(args.output_nspawn_settings)

    # We remove the cache if either the user used --force twice, or he called "clean" with it passed once
    if args.verb == "clean":
        remove_cache = args.force_count > 0
    else:
        remove_cache = args.force_count > 1

    if remove_cache:

        if args.cache_pre_dev is not None or args.cache_pre_inst is not None:
            with complete_step('Removing incremental cache files'):
                if args.cache_pre_dev is not None:
                    unlink_try_hard(args.cache_pre_dev)

                if args.cache_pre_inst is not None:
                    unlink_try_hard(args.cache_pre_inst)

        if args.build_dir is not None:
            with complete_step('Clearing out build directory'):
                empty_directory(args.build_dir)

def parse_boolean(s):
    "Parse 1/true/yes as true and 0/false/no as false"
    if s in {"1", "true", "yes"}:
        return True

    if s in {"0", "false", "no"}:
        return False

    raise ValueError("Invalid literal for bool(): {!r}".format(s))

def process_setting(args, section, key, value):
    if section == "Distribution":
        if key == "Distribution":
            if args.distribution is None:
                args.distribution = value
        elif key == "Release":
            if args.release is None:
                args.release = value
        elif key == "Repositories":
            list_value = value if type(value) == list else value.split()
            if args.repositories is None:
                args.repositories = list_value
            else:
                args.repositories.extend(list_value)
        elif key == "Mirror":
            if args.mirror is None:
                args.mirror = value
        elif key is None:
            return True
        else:
            return False
    elif section == "Output":
        if key == "Format":
            if args.output_format is None:
                args.output_format = value
        elif key == "Output":
            if args.output is None:
                args.output = value
        elif key == "Force":
            if not args.force:
                args.force = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "Bootable":
            if args.bootable is None:
                args.bootable = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "KernelCommandLine":
            if args.kernel_commandline is None:
                args.kernel_commandline = value
        elif key == "SecureBoot":
            if not args.secure_boot:
                args.secure_boot = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "SecureBootKey":
            if args.secure_boot_key is None:
                args.secure_boot_key = value
        elif key == "SecureBootCertificate":
            if args.secure_boot_certificate is None:
                args.secure_boot_certificate = value
        elif key == "ReadOnly":
            if not args.read_only:
                args.read_only = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "Encrypt":
            if args.encrypt is None:
                if value not in ("all", "data"):
                    raise ValueError("Invalid encryption setting: "+ value)
                args.encrypt = value
        elif key == "Verity":
            if not args.verity:
                args.verity = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "Compress":
            if not args.compress:
                args.compress = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "XZ":
            if not args.xz:
                args.xz = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "Hostname":
            if not args.hostname:
                args.hostname = value
        elif key is None:
            return True
        else:
            return False
    elif section == "Packages":
        if key == "Packages":
            list_value = value if type(value) == list else value.split()
            if args.packages is None:
                args.packages = list_value
            else:
                args.packages.extend(list_value)
        elif key == "WithDocs":
            if not args.with_docs:
                args.with_docs = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "Cache":
            if args.cache_path is None:
                args.cache_path = value
        elif key == "ExtraTrees":
            list_value = value if type(value) == list else value.split()
            if args.extra_trees is None:
                args.extra_trees = list_value
            else:
                args.extra_trees.extend(list_value)
        elif key == "BuildScript":
            if args.build_script is None:
                args.build_script = value
        elif key == "BuildSources":
            if args.build_sources is None:
                args.build_sources = value
        elif key == "BuildDirectory":
            if args.build_dir is None:
                args.build_dir = value
        elif key == "BuildPackages":
            list_value = value if type(value) == list else value.split()
            if args.build_packages is None:
                args.build_packages = list_value
            else:
                args.build_packages.extend(list_value)
        elif key == "PostInstallationScript":
            if args.postinst_script is None:
                args.postinst_script = value
        elif key == "WithNetwork":
            if not args.with_network:
                args.with_network = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "NSpawnSettings":
            if args.nspawn_settings is None:
                args.nspawn_settings = value
        elif key is None:
            return True
        else:
            return False
    elif section == "Partitions":
        if key == "RootSize":
            if args.root_size is None:
                args.root_size = value
        elif key == "ESPSize":
            if args.esp_size is None:
                args.esp_size = value
        elif key == "SwapSize":
            if args.swap_size is None:
                args.swap_size = value
        elif key == "HomeSize":
            if args.home_size is None:
                args.home_size = value
        elif key == "SrvSize":
            if args.srv_size is None:
                args.srv_size = value
        elif key is None:
            return True
        else:
            return False
    elif section == "Validation":
        if key == "CheckSum":
            if not args.checksum:
                args.checksum = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "Sign":
            if not args.sign:
                args.sign = parse_boolean(value)
        elif key == "Key":
            if args.key is None:
                args.key = value
        elif key == "Password":
            if args.password is None:
                args.password = value
        elif key is None:
            return True
        else:
            return False
    else:
        return False

    return True

def load_defaults_file(fname, options):
    try:
        f = open(fname, "r")
    except FileNotFoundError:
        return

    config = configparser.ConfigParser(delimiters='=')
    config.optionxform = str
    config.read_file(f)

    # this is used only for validation
    args = parse_args()

    for section in config.sections():
        if not process_setting(args, section, None, None):
            sys.stderr.write("Unknown section in {}, ignoring: [{}]\n".format(fname, section))
            continue
        if section not in options:
            options[section] = {}
        for key in config[section]:
            if not process_setting(args, section, key, config[section][key]):
                sys.stderr.write("Unknown key in section [{}] in {}, ignoring: {}=\n".format(section, fname, key))
                continue
            if section == "Packages" and key in ["Packages", "ExtraTrees", "BuildPackages"]:
                if key in options[section]:
                    options[section][key].extend(config[section][key].split())
                else:
                    options[section][key] = config[section][key].split()
            else:
                options[section][key] = config[section][key]
    return options

def load_defaults(args):
    fname = "mkosi.default" if args.default_path is None else args.default_path

    config = {}
    load_defaults_file(fname, config)

    defaults_dir = fname + '.d'
    if os.path.isdir(defaults_dir):
        for defaults_file in sorted(os.listdir(defaults_dir)):
            defaults_path = os.path.join(defaults_dir, defaults_file)
            if os.path.isfile(defaults_path):
                load_defaults_file(defaults_path, config)

    for section in config.keys():
        for key in config[section]:
            process_setting(args, section, key, config[section][key])

def find_nspawn_settings(args):
    if args.nspawn_settings is not None:
        return

    if os.path.exists("mkosi.nspawn"):
        args.nspawn_settings = "mkosi.nspawn"

def find_extra(args):
    if os.path.exists("mkosi.extra"):
        if args.extra_trees is None:
            args.extra_trees = ["mkosi.extra"]
        else:
            args.extra_trees.append("mkosi.extra")

def find_cache(args):

    if args.cache_path is not None:
        return

    if os.path.exists("mkosi.cache/"):
        args.cache_path = "mkosi.cache/" + args.distribution.name + "~" + args.release

def find_build_script(args):
    if args.build_script is not None:
        return

    if os.path.exists("mkosi.build"):
        args.build_script = "mkosi.build"

def find_build_sources(args):
    if args.build_sources is not None:
        return

    args.build_sources = os.getcwd()

def find_build_dir(args):
    if args.build_dir is not None:
        return

    if os.path.exists("mkosi.builddir/"):
        args.build_dir = "mkosi.builddir"

def find_postinst_script(args):
    if args.postinst_script is not None:
        return

    if os.path.exists("mkosi.postinst"):
        args.postinst_script = "mkosi.postinst"

def find_passphrase(args):

    if args.encrypt is None:
        args.passphrase = None
        return

    try:
        passphrase_mode = os.stat('mkosi.passphrase').st_mode & (stat.S_IRWXU | stat.S_IRWXG | stat.S_IRWXO)
        if (passphrase_mode & stat.S_IRWXU > 0o600) or (passphrase_mode & (stat.S_IRWXG | stat.S_IRWXO) > 0):
            die("Permissions of 'mkosi.passphrase' of '{}' are too open. When creating passphrase files please make sure to choose an access mode that restricts access to the owner only. Aborting.\n".format(oct(passphrase_mode)))

        args.passphrase = { 'type': 'file', 'content': 'mkosi.passphrase' }

    except FileNotFoundError:
        while True:
            passphrase = getpass.getpass("Please enter passphrase: ")
            passphrase_confirmation = getpass.getpass("Passphrase confirmation: ")
            if passphrase == passphrase_confirmation:
                args.passphrase = { 'type': 'stdin', 'content': passphrase }
                break

            sys.stderr.write("Passphrase doesn't match confirmation. Please try again.\n")

def find_secure_boot(args):
    if not args.secure_boot:
        return

    if args.secure_boot_key is None:
        if os.path.exists("mkosi.secure-boot.key"):
            args.secure_boot_key = "mkosi.secure-boot.key"

    if args.secure_boot_certificate is None:
        if os.path.exists("mkosi.secure-boot.crt"):
            args.secure_boot_certificate = "mkosi.secure-boot.crt"

def strip_suffixes(path):
    t = path
    while True:
        if t.endswith(".xz"):
            t = t[:-3]
        elif t.endswith(".raw"):
            t = t[:-4]
        elif t.endswith(".tar"):
            t = t[:-4]
        else:
            break

    return t

def build_nspawn_settings_path(path):
    return strip_suffixes(path) + ".nspawn"

def build_root_hash_file_path(path):
    return strip_suffixes(path) + ".roothash"

def load_args():
    args = parse_args()

    if args.directory is not None:
        os.chdir(args.directory)

    load_defaults(args)
    find_nspawn_settings(args)
    find_extra(args)
    find_build_script(args)
    find_build_sources(args)
    find_build_dir(args)
    find_postinst_script(args)
    find_passphrase(args)
    find_secure_boot(args)

    args.force = args.force_count > 0

    if args.output_format is None:
        args.output_format = OutputFormat.raw_gpt
    else:
        args.output_format = OutputFormat[args.output_format]

    if args.distribution is not None:
        args.distribution = Distribution[args.distribution]

    if args.distribution is None or args.release is None:
        d, r = detect_distribution()

        if args.distribution is None:
            args.distribution = d

        if args.distribution == d and args.release is None:
            args.release = r

    if args.distribution is None:
        die("Couldn't detect distribution.")

    if args.release is None:
        if args.distribution == Distribution.fedora:
            args.release = "25"
        if args.distribution == Distribution.mageia:
            args.release = "6"
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.debian:
            args.release = "unstable"
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.ubuntu:
            args.release = "yakkety"
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.opensuse:
            args.release = "tumbleweed"

    find_cache(args)

    if args.mirror is None:
        if args.distribution == Distribution.fedora:
            args.mirror = None
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.debian:
            args.mirror = "http://deb.debian.org/debian"
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.ubuntu:
            args.mirror = "http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu"
            if platform.machine() == "aarch64":
                args.mirror = "http://ports.ubuntu.com/"
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.arch:
            args.mirror = "https://mirrors.kernel.org/archlinux"
            if platform.machine() == "aarch64":
                args.mirror = "http://mirror.archlinuxarm.org"
        elif args.distribution == Distribution.opensuse:
            args.mirror = "https://download.opensuse.org"

    if args.bootable:
        if args.distribution == Distribution.ubuntu:
            die("Bootable images are currently not supported on Ubuntu.")

        if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.directory, OutputFormat.subvolume, OutputFormat.tar):
            die("Directory, subvolume and tar images cannot be booted.")

    if args.encrypt is not None:
        if args.output_format not in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs):
            die("Encryption is only supported for raw gpt, btrfs or squashfs images.")

        if args.encrypt == "data" and args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_btrfs:
            die("'data' encryption mode not supported on btrfs, use 'all' instead.")

        if args.encrypt == "all" and args.verity:
            die("'all' encryption mode may not be combined with Verity.")

    if args.sign:
        args.checksum = True

    if args.output is None:
        if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs):
            if args.xz:
                args.output = "image.raw.xz"
            else:
                args.output = "image.raw"
        elif args.output_format == OutputFormat.tar:
            args.output = "image.tar.xz"
        else:
            args.output = "image"

    if args.incremental or args.verb == "clean":
        args.cache_pre_dev = args.output + ".cache-pre-dev"
        args.cache_pre_inst = args.output + ".cache-pre-inst"
    else:
        args.cache_pre_dev = None
        args.cache_pre_inst = None

    args.output = os.path.abspath(args.output)

    if args.output_format == OutputFormat.tar:
        args.xz = True

    if args.output_format == OutputFormat.raw_squashfs:
        args.read_only = True
        args.compress = True
        args.root_size = None

    if args.verity:
        args.read_only = True
        args.output_root_hash_file = build_root_hash_file_path(args.output)

    if args.checksum:
        args.output_checksum = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(args.output), "SHA256SUMS")

    if args.sign:
        args.output_signature = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(args.output), "SHA256SUMS.gpg")

    if args.nspawn_settings is not None:
        args.nspawn_settings = os.path.abspath(args.nspawn_settings)
        args.output_nspawn_settings = build_nspawn_settings_path(args.output)

    if args.build_script is not None:
        args.build_script = os.path.abspath(args.build_script)

    if args.build_sources is not None:
        args.build_sources = os.path.abspath(args.build_sources)

    if args.build_dir is not None:
        args.build_dir = os.path.abspath(args.build_dir)

    if args.postinst_script is not None:
        args.postinst_script = os.path.abspath(args.postinst_script)

    if args.extra_trees is not None:
        for i in range(len(args.extra_trees)):
            args.extra_trees[i] = os.path.abspath(args.extra_trees[i])

    args.root_size = parse_bytes(args.root_size)
    args.home_size = parse_bytes(args.home_size)
    args.srv_size = parse_bytes(args.srv_size)
    args.esp_size = parse_bytes(args.esp_size)
    args.swap_size = parse_bytes(args.swap_size)

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs) and args.root_size is None:
        args.root_size = 1024*1024*1024

    if args.bootable and args.esp_size is None:
        args.esp_size = 256*1024*1024

    args.verity_size = None

    if args.bootable and args.kernel_commandline is None:
        args.kernel_commandline = "rhgb quiet selinux=0 audit=0 rw"

    if args.secure_boot_key is not None:
        args.secure_boot_key = os.path.abspath(args.secure_boot_key)

    if args.secure_boot_certificate is not None:
        args.secure_boot_certificate = os.path.abspath(args.secure_boot_certificate)

    if args.secure_boot:
        if args.secure_boot_key is None:
            die("UEFI SecureBoot enabled, but couldn't find private key. (Consider placing it in mkosi.secure-boot.key?)")

        if args.secure_boot_certificate is None:
            die("UEFI SecureBoot enabled, but couldn't find certificate. (Consider placing it in mkosi.secure-boot.crt?)")

    return args

def check_output(args):
    for f in (args.output,
              args.output_checksum if args.checksum else None,
              args.output_signature if args.sign else None,
              args.output_nspawn_settings if args.nspawn_settings is not None else None,
              args.output_root_hash_file if args.verity else None):

        if f is None:
            continue

        if os.path.exists(f):
            die("Output file " + f + " exists already. (Consider invocation with --force.)")

def yes_no(b):
    return "yes" if b else "no"

def format_bytes_or_disabled(sz):
    if sz is None:
        return "(disabled)"

    return format_bytes(sz)

def format_bytes_or_auto(sz):
    if sz is None:
        return "(automatic)"

    return format_bytes(sz)

def none_to_na(s):
    return "n/a" if s is None else s

def none_to_no(s):
    return "no" if s is None else s

def none_to_none(s):
    return "none" if s is None else s

def line_join_list(l):

    if l is None:
        return "none"

    return "\n                        ".join(l)

def print_summary(args):
    sys.stderr.write("DISTRIBUTION:\n")
    sys.stderr.write("          Distribution: " + args.distribution.name + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("               Release: " + none_to_na(args.release) + "\n")
    if args.mirror is not None:
        sys.stderr.write("                Mirror: " + args.mirror + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("\nOUTPUT:\n")
    if args.hostname:
        sys.stderr.write("              Hostname: " + args.hostname + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("         Output Format: " + args.output_format.name + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("                Output: " + args.output + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("       Output Checksum: " + none_to_na(args.output_checksum if args.checksum else None) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("      Output Signature: " + none_to_na(args.output_signature if args.sign else None) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("Output nspawn Settings: " + none_to_na(args.output_nspawn_settings if args.nspawn_settings is not None else None) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("           Incremental: " + yes_no(args.incremental) + "\n")

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs, OutputFormat.subvolume):
        sys.stderr.write("             Read-only: " + yes_no(args.read_only) + "\n")
    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.subvolume):
        sys.stderr.write("        FS Compression: " + yes_no(args.compress) + "\n")

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs, OutputFormat.tar):
        sys.stderr.write("        XZ Compression: " + yes_no(args.xz) + "\n")

    sys.stderr.write("            Encryption: " + none_to_no(args.encrypt) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("                Verity: " + yes_no(args.verity) + "\n")

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs):
        sys.stderr.write("              Bootable: " + yes_no(args.bootable) + "\n")

        if args.bootable:
            sys.stderr.write("   Kernel Command Line: " + args.kernel_commandline + "\n")
            sys.stderr.write("       UEFI SecureBoot: " + yes_no(args.secure_boot) + "\n")

            if args.secure_boot:
                sys.stderr.write("   UEFI SecureBoot Key: " + args.secure_boot_key + "\n")
                sys.stderr.write(" UEFI SecureBoot Cert.: " + args.secure_boot_certificate + "\n")

    sys.stderr.write("\nPACKAGES:\n")
    sys.stderr.write("              Packages: " + line_join_list(args.packages) + "\n")

    if args.distribution in (Distribution.fedora, Distribution.mageia):
        sys.stderr.write("    With Documentation: " + yes_no(args.with_docs) + "\n")

    sys.stderr.write("         Package Cache: " + none_to_none(args.cache_path) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("           Extra Trees: " + line_join_list(args.extra_trees) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("          Build Script: " + none_to_none(args.build_script) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("         Build Sources: " + none_to_none(args.build_sources) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("       Build Directory: " + none_to_none(args.build_dir) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("        Build Packages: " + line_join_list(args.build_packages) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("     Post Inst. Script: " + none_to_none(args.postinst_script) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("  Scripts with network: " + yes_no(args.with_network) + "\n")
    sys.stderr.write("       nspawn Settings: " + none_to_none(args.nspawn_settings) + "\n")

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs):
        sys.stderr.write("\nPARTITIONS:\n")
        sys.stderr.write("        Root Partition: " + format_bytes_or_auto(args.root_size) + "\n")
        sys.stderr.write("        Swap Partition: " + format_bytes_or_disabled(args.swap_size) + "\n")
        sys.stderr.write("                   ESP: " + format_bytes_or_disabled(args.esp_size) + "\n")
        sys.stderr.write("       /home Partition: " + format_bytes_or_disabled(args.home_size) + "\n")
        sys.stderr.write("        /srv Partition: " + format_bytes_or_disabled(args.srv_size) + "\n")

    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs, OutputFormat.raw_squashfs, OutputFormat.tar):
        sys.stderr.write("\nVALIDATION:\n")
        sys.stderr.write("              Checksum: " + yes_no(args.checksum) + "\n")
        sys.stderr.write("                  Sign: " + yes_no(args.sign) + "\n")
        sys.stderr.write("               GPG Key: " + ("default" if args.key is None else args.key) + "\n")
        sys.stderr.write("              Password: " + ("default" if args.password is None else args.password) + "\n")

def reuse_cache_tree(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache, cached):
    """If there's a cached version of this tree around, use it and
    initialize our new root directly from it. Returns a boolean indicating
    whether we are now operating on a cached version or not."""

    if cached:
        return True

    if not args.incremental:
        return False
    if for_cache:
        return False
    if args.output_format in (OutputFormat.raw_gpt, OutputFormat.raw_btrfs):
        return False

    fname = args.cache_pre_dev if run_build_script else args.cache_pre_inst
    if fname is None:
        return False

    with complete_step('Copying in cached tree ' + fname):
        try:
            enumerate_and_copy(fname, os.path.join(workspace, "root"))
        except FileNotFoundError:
            return False

    return True

def build_image(args, workspace, run_build_script, for_cache=False):

    # If there's no build script set, there's no point in executing
    # the build script iteration. Let's quit early.
    if args.build_script is None and run_build_script:
        return None, None, None

    raw, cached = reuse_cache_image(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache)
    if not cached:
        raw = create_image(args, workspace.name, for_cache)

    with attach_image_loopback(args, raw) as loopdev:

        prepare_swap(args, loopdev, cached)
        prepare_esp(args, loopdev, cached)

        luks_format_root(args, loopdev, run_build_script, cached)
        luks_format_home(args, loopdev, run_build_script, cached)
        luks_format_srv(args, loopdev, run_build_script, cached)

        with luks_setup_all(args, loopdev, run_build_script) as (encrypted_root, encrypted_home, encrypted_srv):

            prepare_root(args, encrypted_root, cached)
            prepare_home(args, encrypted_home, cached)
            prepare_srv(args, encrypted_srv, cached)

            with mount_image(args, workspace.name, loopdev, encrypted_root, encrypted_home, encrypted_srv):
                prepare_tree(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, cached)

                with mount_cache(args, workspace.name):
                    cached = reuse_cache_tree(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache, cached)
                    install_distribution(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, cached)
                    install_boot_loader(args, workspace.name, cached)

                    install_extra_trees(args, workspace.name, for_cache)
                    install_build_src(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache)
                    install_build_dest(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache)
                    set_root_password(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache)
                    run_postinst_script(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache)

                reset_machine_id(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache)
                make_read_only(args, workspace.name, for_cache)

            squashfs = make_squashfs(args, workspace.name, for_cache)
            insert_squashfs(args, workspace.name, raw, loopdev, squashfs, for_cache)

            verity, root_hash = make_verity(args, workspace.name, encrypted_root, run_build_script, for_cache)
            patch_root_uuid(args, loopdev, root_hash, for_cache)
            insert_verity(args, workspace.name, raw, loopdev, verity, root_hash, for_cache)

            # This time we mount read-only, as we already generated
            # the verity data, and hence really shouldn't modify the
            # image anymore.
            with mount_image(args, workspace.name, loopdev, encrypted_root, encrypted_home, encrypted_srv, root_read_only=True):
                install_unified_kernel(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache, root_hash)
                secure_boot_sign(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache)

    tar = make_tar(args, workspace.name, run_build_script, for_cache)

    return raw, tar, root_hash

def var_tmp(workspace):

    var_tmp = os.path.join(workspace, "var-tmp")
    try:
        os.mkdir(var_tmp)
    except FileExistsError:
        pass

    return var_tmp

def run_build_script(args, workspace, raw):
    if args.build_script is None:
        return

    with complete_step('Running build script'):
        dest = os.path.join(workspace, "dest")
        os.mkdir(dest, 0o755)

        target = "--directory=" + os.path.join(workspace, "root") if raw is None else "--image=" + raw.name

        cmdline = ["systemd-nspawn",
                   '--quiet',
                   target,
                   "--uuid=" + args.machine_id,
                   "--machine=mkosi-" + uuid.uuid4().hex,
                   "--as-pid2",
                   "--register=no",
                   "--bind", dest + ":/root/dest",
                   "--bind=" + var_tmp(workspace) + ":/var/tmp",
                   "--setenv=WITH_DOCS=" + ("1" if args.with_docs else "0"),
                   "--setenv=DESTDIR=/root/dest"]

        if args.build_sources is not None:
            cmdline.append("--setenv=SRCDIR=/root/src")
            cmdline.append("--chdir=/root/src")

            if args.read_only:
                cmdline.append("--overlay=+/root/src::/root/src")
        else:
            cmdline.append("--chdir=/root")

        if args.build_dir is not None:
            cmdline.append("--setenv=BUILDDIR=/root/build")
            cmdline.append("--bind=" + args.build_dir + ":/root/build")

        if not args.with_network:
            cmdline.append("--private-network")

        cmdline.append("/root/" + os.path.basename(args.build_script))
        subprocess.run(cmdline, check=True)

def need_cache_images(args):

    if not args.incremental:
        return False

    if args.force_count > 1:
        return True

    return not os.path.exists(args.cache_pre_dev) or not os.path.exists(args.cache_pre_inst)

def remove_artifacts(args, workspace, raw, tar, run_build_script, for_cache=False):

    if for_cache:
        what = "cache build"
    elif run_build_script:
        what = "development build"
    else:
        return

    if raw is not None:
        with complete_step("Removing disk image from " + what):
            del raw

    if tar is not None:
        with complete_step("Removing tar image from " + what):
            del tar

    with complete_step("Removing artifacts from " + what):
        unlink_try_hard(os.path.join(workspace, "root"))
        unlink_try_hard(os.path.join(workspace, "var-tmp"))

def build_stuff(args):

    # Let's define a fixed machine ID for all our build-time
    # runs. We'll strip it off the final image, but some build-time
    # tools (dracut...) want a fixed one, hence provide one, and
    # always the same
    args.machine_id = uuid.uuid4().hex

    cache = setup_cache(args)
    workspace = setup_workspace(args)

    # If caching is requested, then make sure we have cache images around we can make use of
    if need_cache_images(args):

        # Generate the cache version of the build image, and store it as "cache-pre-dev"
        raw, tar, root_hash = build_image(args, workspace, run_build_script=True, for_cache=True)
        save_cache(args,
                   workspace.name,
                   raw.name if raw is not None else None,
                   args.cache_pre_dev)

        remove_artifacts(args, workspace.name, raw, tar, run_build_script=True)

        # Generate the cache version of the build image, and store it as "cache-pre-inst"
        raw, tar, root_hash = build_image(args, workspace, run_build_script=False, for_cache=True)
        save_cache(args,
                   workspace.name,
                   raw.name if raw is not None else None,
                   args.cache_pre_inst)
        remove_artifacts(args, workspace.name, raw, tar, run_build_script=False)

    # Run the image builder for the first (develpoment) stage in preparation for the build script
    raw, tar, root_hash = build_image(args, workspace, run_build_script=True)

    run_build_script(args, workspace.name, raw)
    remove_artifacts(args, workspace.name, raw, tar, run_build_script=True)

    # Run the image builder for the second (final) stage
    raw, tar, root_hash = build_image(args, workspace, run_build_script=False)

    raw = xz_output(args, raw)
    root_hash_file = write_root_hash_file(args, root_hash)
    settings = copy_nspawn_settings(args)
    checksum = calculate_sha256sum(args, raw, tar, root_hash_file, settings)
    signature = calculate_signature(args, checksum)

    link_output(args,
                workspace.name,
                raw.name if raw is not None else None,
                tar.name if tar is not None else None)

    link_output_root_hash_file(args, root_hash_file.name if root_hash_file is not None else None)

    link_output_checksum(args,
                         checksum.name if checksum is not None else None)

    link_output_signature(args,
                          signature.name if signature is not None else None)

    link_output_nspawn_settings(args,
                                settings.name if settings is not None else None)

    if root_hash is not None:
        print_step("Root hash is {}.".format(root_hash))

def check_root():
    if os.getuid() != 0:
        die("Must be invoked as root.")


def main():
    args = load_args()

    if args.verb in ("build", "clean"):
        check_root()
        unlink_output(args)

    if args.verb == "build":
        check_output(args)

    if args.verb in ("build", "summary"):
        print_summary(args)

    if args.verb == "build":
        check_root()
        init_namespace(args)
        build_stuff(args)
        print_output_size(args)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()