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+.\" ** You probably do not want to edit this file directly **
+.\" It was generated using the DocBook XSL Stylesheets (version 1.69.1).
+.\" Instead of manually editing it, you probably should edit the DocBook XML
+.\" source for it and then use the DocBook XSL Stylesheets to regenerate it.
+.TH "PAM" "8" "03/12/2006" "Linux\-PAM Manual" "Linux\-PAM Manual"
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.SH "NAME"
+PAM, pam \- Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux
+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
+.PP
+This manual is intended to offer a quick introduction to
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR. For more information the reader is directed to the
+\fILinux\-PAM system administrators' guide\fR.
+.PP
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR
+Is a system of libraries that handle the authentication tasks of applications (services) on the system. The library provides a stable general interface (Application Programming Interface \- API) that privilege granting programs (such as
+\fBlogin\fR(1)
+and
+\fBsu\fR(1)) defer to to perform standard authentication tasks.
+.PP
+The principal feature of the PAM approach is that the nature of the authentication is dynamically configurable. In other words, the system administrator is free to choose how individual service\-providing applications will authenticate users. This dynamic configuration is set by the contents of the single
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR
+configuration file
+\fI/etc/pam.conf\fR. Alternatively, the configuration can be set by individual configuration files located in the
+\fI/etc/pam.d/\fR
+directory.
+\fIThe presence of this directory will cause \fR\fILinux\-PAM\fR\fI to ignore\fR\fI/etc/pam.conf\fR.
+.PP
+From the point of view of the system administrator, for whom this manual is provided, it is not of primary importance to understand the internal behavior of the
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR
+library. The important point to recognize is that the configuration file(s)
+\fIdefine\fR
+the connection between applications
+(\fIservices\fR) and the pluggable authentication modules
+(\fIPAM\fRs) that perform the actual authentication tasks.
+.PP
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR
+separates the tasks of
+\fIauthentication\fR
+into four independent management groups:
+\fIaccount\fR
+management;
+\fIauth\fRentication management;
+\fIpassword\fR
+management; and
+\fIsession\fR
+management. (We highlight the abbreviations used for these groups in the configuration file.)
+.PP
+Simply put, these groups take care of different aspects of a typical user's request for a restricted service:
+.PP
+\fIaccount\fR
+\- provide account verification types of service: has the user's password expired?; is this user permitted access to the requested service?
+.PP
+\fIauth\fRentication \- authenticate a user and set up user credentials. Typically this is via some challenge\-response request that the user must satisfy: if you are who you claim to be please enter your password. Not all authentications are of this type, there exist hardware based authentication schemes (such as the use of smart\-cards and biometric devices), with suitable modules, these may be substituted seamlessly for more standard approaches to authentication \- such is the flexibility of
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR.
+.PP
+\fIpassword\fR
+\- this group's responsibility is the task of updating authentication mechanisms. Typically, such services are strongly coupled to those of the
+\fIauth\fR
+group. Some authentication mechanisms lend themselves well to being updated with such a function. Standard UN*X password\-based access is the obvious example: please enter a replacement password.
+.PP
+\fIsession\fR
+\- this group of tasks cover things that should be done prior to a service being given and after it is withdrawn. Such tasks include the maintenance of audit trails and the mounting of the user's home directory. The
+\fIsession\fR
+management group is important as it provides both an opening and closing hook for modules to affect the services available to a user.
+.SH "FILES"
+.PP
+\fI/etc/pam.conf\fR
+\- the configuration file\fI/etc/pam.d/\fR
+\- the
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR
+configuration directory. Generally, if this directory is present, the
+\fI/etc/pam.conf\fR
+file is ignored.\fI/lib/libpam.so.X\fR
+\- the dynamic library\fI/lib/security/*.so\fR
+\- the PAMs
+.SH "ERRORS"
+.PP
+Typically errors generated by the
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR
+system of libraries, will be written to
+\fBsyslog\fR(3).
+.SH "CONFORMING TO"
+.PP
+DCE\-RFC 86.0, October 1995.Contains additional features, but remains backwardly compatible with this RFC.
+.SH "BUGS"
+.PP
+None known.
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+.PP
+The three
+\fILinux\-PAM\fR
+Guides, for
+\fIsystem administrators\fR,
+\fImodule developers\fR, and
+\fIapplication developers\fR.