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+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
+ "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd">
+<refentry id='pam3'>
+
+ <refmeta>
+ <refentrytitle>pam</refentrytitle>
+ <manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ <refmiscinfo class='setdesc'>Linux-PAM Manual</refmiscinfo>
+ </refmeta>
+
+ <refnamediv id='pam3-name'>
+ <refname>pam</refname>
+ <refpurpose>Pluggable Authentication Modules Library</refpurpose>
+ </refnamediv>
+
+ <refsynopsisdiv id='pam3-synopsis'>
+ <funcsynopsis>
+ <funcsynopsisinfo>#include &lt;security/pam_appl.h&gt;</funcsynopsisinfo>
+ <funcsynopsisinfo>#include &lt;security/pam_modules.h&gt;</funcsynopsisinfo>
+ <funcsynopsisinfo>#include &lt;security/pam_ext.h&gt;</funcsynopsisinfo>
+ </funcsynopsis>
+ </refsynopsisdiv>
+
+ <refsect1 id='pam3-description'>
+ <title>DESCRIPTION</title>
+ <para>
+ <emphasis remap='B'>PAM</emphasis> is a system of libraries
+ that handle the authentication tasks of applications (services)
+ on the system. The library provides a stable general interface
+ (Application Programming Interface - API) that privilege granting
+ programs (such as
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>login</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> and <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>)
+ defer to to perform standard authentication tasks.
+ </para>
+
+ <refsect2 id='pam3-initialization_and_cleanup'>
+ <title>Initialization and Cleanup</title>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_start</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> function creates the PAM context and initiates the
+ PAM transaction. It is the first of the PAM functions that needs to
+ be called by an application. The transaction state is contained
+ entirely within the structure identified by this handle, so it is
+ possible to have multiple transactions in parallel. But it is not
+ possible to use the same handle for different transactions, a new
+ one is needed for every new context.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_end</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> function terminates the PAM transaction and is the last
+ function an application should call in the PAM contenxt. Upon return
+ the handle pamh is no longer valid and all memory associated with it
+ will be invalid. It can be called at any time to terminate a PAM
+ transaction.
+ </para>
+ </refsect2>
+
+ <refsect2 id='pam3-authentication'>
+ <title>Authentication</title>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_authenticate</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ function is used to
+ authenticate the user. The user is required to provide an
+ authentication token depending upon the authentication service,
+ usually this is a password, but could also be a finger print.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_setcred</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ function manages the userscredentials.
+ </para>
+ </refsect2>
+
+ <refsect2 id='pam3-account_management'>
+ <title>Account Management</title>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_acct_mgmt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> function is used to determine if the users account is
+ valid. It checks for authentication token and account expiration and
+ verifies access restrictions. It is typically called after the user
+ has been authenticated.
+ </para>
+ </refsect2>
+
+ <refsect2 id='pam3-password_management'>
+ <title>Password Management</title>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_chauthtok</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> function is used to change the authentication token
+ for a given user on request or because the token has expired.
+ </para>
+ </refsect2>
+
+ <refsect2 id='pam3-session_management'>
+ <title>Session Management</title>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_open_session</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> function sets up a user session for a previously
+ successful authenticated user. The session should later be terminated
+ with a call to
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_close_session</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>.
+ </para>
+ </refsect2>
+
+ <refsect2 id='pam3-conversation'>
+ <title>Conversation</title>
+ <para>
+ The PAM library uses an application-defined callback to allow
+ a direct communication between a loaded module and the application.
+ This callback is specified by the
+ <emphasis>struct pam_conv</emphasis> passed to
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_start</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> at the start of the transaction. See
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_conv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ for details.
+ </para>
+ </refsect2>
+
+ <refsect2 id='pam3-data'>
+ <title>Data Objects</title>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_set_item</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ and
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_get_item</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ functions allows applications and PAM service modules to set and retrieve
+ PAM informations.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_set_data</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ and
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_get_data</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ functions allows PAM service modules to set and retrieve free-form
+ data from one invocation to another.
+ </para>
+ </refsect2>
+
+ <refsect2 id='pam3-miscellaneous'>
+ <title>Environment and Error Management</title>
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_putenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>,
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_getenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> and
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_getenvlist</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ functions are for maintaining a set of private environment variables.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ The
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_strerror</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry> function returns a pointer to a string describing the
+ given PAM error code.
+ </para>
+ </refsect2>
+ </refsect1>
+
+ <refsect1 id='pam3-return_values'>
+ <title>RETURN VALUES</title>
+ <para>
+ The following return codes are known by PAM:
+ </para>
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_ABORT</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Critical error, immediate abort.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_ACCT_EXPIRED</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>User account has expired.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_AUTHINFO_UNAVAIL</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>
+ Authentication service cannot retrieve authentication info.
+ </para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_AUTHTOK_DISABLE_AGING</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Authentication token aging disabled.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_AUTHTOK_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Authentication token manipulation error.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_AUTHTOK_EXPIRED</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Authentication token expired.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_AUTHTOK_LOCK_BUSY</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Authentication token lock busy.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_AUTHTOK_RECOVERY_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Authentication information cannot be recovered.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_AUTH_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Authentication failure.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_BUF_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Memory buffer error.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_CONV_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Conversation failure.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_CRED_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Failure setting user credentials.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_CRED_EXPIRED</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>User credentials expired.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_CRED_INSUFFICIENT</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Insufficient credentials to access authentication data.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_CRED_UNAVAIL</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Authentication service cannot retrieve user credentials.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_IGNORE</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The return value should be ignored by PAM dispatch.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_MAXTRIES</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Have exhausted maximum number of retries for service.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_MODULE_UNKNOWN</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Module is unknown.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>
+ Authentication token is no longer valid; new one required.
+ </para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_NO_MODULE_DATA</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>No module specific data is present.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_OPEN_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Failed to load module.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_PERM_DENIED</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Permission denied.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_SERVICE_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Error in service module.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_SESSION_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Cannot make/remove an entry for the specified session.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_SUCCESS</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Success.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_SYMBOL_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Symbol not found.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_SYSTEM_ERR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>System error.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_TRY_AGAIN</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Failed preliminary check by password service.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>PAM_USER_UNKNOWN</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>User not known to the underlying authentication module.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </refsect1>
+
+ <refsect1 id='see_also'><title>SEE ALSO</title>
+ <para>
+ <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_acct_mgmt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_authenticate</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_chauthtok</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_close_session</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_conv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_end</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_get_data</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_getenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_getenvlist</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_get_item</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_get_user</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_open_session</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_putenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_set_data</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_set_item</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_setcred</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_start</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>, <citerefentry>
+ <refentrytitle>pam_strerror</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
+ </citerefentry>
+ </para>
+ </refsect1>
+</refentry>