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'\" t
.\"     Title: access.conf
.\"    Author: [see the "AUTHORS" section]
.\" Generator: DocBook XSL Stylesheets v1.79.1 <http://docbook.sf.net/>
.\"      Date: 06/08/2020
.\"    Manual: Linux-PAM Manual
.\"    Source: Linux-PAM Manual
.\"  Language: English
.\"
.TH "ACCESS\&.CONF" "5" "06/08/2020" "Linux-PAM Manual" "Linux\-PAM Manual"
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * Define some portability stuff
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.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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.el       .ds Aq '
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * set default formatting
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.\" disable hyphenation
.nh
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.ad l
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.SH "NAME"
access.conf \- the login access control table file
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.PP
The
/etc/security/access\&.conf
file specifies (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fIhost\fR), (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fInetwork/netmask\fR), (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fItty\fR), (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fIX\-$DISPLAY\-value\fR), or (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fIpam\-service\-name\fR) combinations for which a login will be either accepted or refused\&.
.PP
When someone logs in, the file
access\&.conf
is scanned for the first entry that matches the (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fIhost\fR) or (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fInetwork/netmask\fR) combination, or, in case of non\-networked logins, the first entry that matches the (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fItty\fR) combination, or in the case of non\-networked logins without a tty, the first entry that matches the (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fIX\-$DISPLAY\-value\fR) or (\fIuser/group\fR,
\fIpam\-service\-name/\fR) combination\&. The permissions field of that table entry determines whether the login will be accepted or refused\&.
.PP
Each line of the login access control table has three fields separated by a ":" character (colon):
.PP
\fIpermission\fR:\fIusers/groups\fR:\fIorigins\fR
.PP
The first field, the
\fIpermission\fR
field, can be either a "\fI+\fR" character (plus) for access granted or a "\fI\-\fR" character (minus) for access denied\&.
.PP
The second field, the
\fIusers\fR/\fIgroup\fR
field, should be a list of one or more login names, group names, or
\fIALL\fR
(which always matches)\&. To differentiate user entries from group entries, group entries should be written with brackets, e\&.g\&.
\fI(group)\fR\&.
.PP
The third field, the
\fIorigins\fR
field, should be a list of one or more tty names (for non\-networked logins), X
\fI$DISPLAY\fR
values or PAM service names (for non\-networked logins without a tty), host names, domain names (begin with "\&."), host addresses, internet network numbers (end with "\&."), internet network addresses with network mask (where network mask can be a decimal number or an internet address also),
\fIALL\fR
(which always matches) or
\fILOCAL\fR\&. The
\fILOCAL\fR
keyword matches if and only if
\fBpam_get_item\fR(3), when called with an
\fIitem_type\fR
of
\fIPAM_RHOST\fR, returns
NULL
or an empty string (and therefore the
\fIorigins\fR
field is compared against the return value of
\fBpam_get_item\fR(3)
called with an
\fIitem_type\fR
of
\fIPAM_TTY\fR
or, absent that,
\fIPAM_SERVICE\fR)\&.
.PP
If supported by the system you can use
\fI@netgroupname\fR
in host or user patterns\&. The
\fI@@netgroupname\fR
syntax is supported in the user pattern only and it makes the local system hostname to be passed to the netgroup match call in addition to the user name\&. This might not work correctly on some libc implementations causing the match to always fail\&.
.PP
The
\fIEXCEPT\fR
operator makes it possible to write very compact rules\&.
.PP
If the
\fBnodefgroup\fR
is not set, the group file is searched when a name does not match that of the logged\-in user\&. Only groups are matched in which users are explicitly listed\&. However the PAM module does not look at the primary group id of a user\&.
.PP
The "\fI#\fR" character at start of line (no space at front) can be used to mark this line as a comment line\&.
.SH "EXAMPLES"
.PP
These are some example lines which might be specified in
/etc/security/access\&.conf\&.
.PP
User
\fIroot\fR
should be allowed to get access via
\fIcron\fR, X11 terminal
\fI:0\fR,
\fItty1\fR, \&.\&.\&.,
\fItty5\fR,
\fItty6\fR\&.
.PP
+:root:crond :0 tty1 tty2 tty3 tty4 tty5 tty6
.PP
User
\fIroot\fR
should be allowed to get access from hosts which own the IPv4 addresses\&. This does not mean that the connection have to be a IPv4 one, a IPv6 connection from a host with one of this IPv4 addresses does work, too\&.
.PP
+:root:192\&.168\&.200\&.1 192\&.168\&.200\&.4 192\&.168\&.200\&.9
.PP
+:root:127\&.0\&.0\&.1
.PP
User
\fIroot\fR
should get access from network
192\&.168\&.201\&.
where the term will be evaluated by string matching\&. But it might be better to use network/netmask instead\&. The same meaning of
192\&.168\&.201\&.
is
\fI192\&.168\&.201\&.0/24\fR
or
\fI192\&.168\&.201\&.0/255\&.255\&.255\&.0\fR\&.
.PP
+:root:192\&.168\&.201\&.
.PP
User
\fIroot\fR
should be able to have access from hosts
\fIfoo1\&.bar\&.org\fR
and
\fIfoo2\&.bar\&.org\fR
(uses string matching also)\&.
.PP
+:root:foo1\&.bar\&.org foo2\&.bar\&.org
.PP
User
\fIroot\fR
should be able to have access from domain
\fIfoo\&.bar\&.org\fR
(uses string matching also)\&.
.PP
+:root:\&.foo\&.bar\&.org
.PP
User
\fIroot\fR
should be denied to get access from all other sources\&.
.PP
\-:root:ALL
.PP
User
\fIfoo\fR
and members of netgroup
\fIadmins\fR
should be allowed to get access from all sources\&. This will only work if netgroup service is available\&.
.PP
+:@admins foo:ALL
.PP
User
\fIjohn\fR
and
\fIfoo\fR
should get access from IPv6 host address\&.
.PP
+:john foo:2001:db8:0:101::1
.PP
User
\fIjohn\fR
should get access from IPv6 net/mask\&.
.PP
+:john:2001:db8:0:101::/64
.PP
Members of group
\fIwheel\fR
should be allowed to get access from all sources\&.
.PP
+:(wheel):ALL
.PP
Disallow console logins to all but the shutdown, sync and all other accounts, which are a member of the wheel group\&.
.PP
\-:ALL EXCEPT (wheel) shutdown sync:LOCAL
.PP
All other users should be denied to get access from all sources\&.
.PP
\-:ALL:ALL
.SH "NOTES"
.PP
The default separators of list items in a field are space, \*(Aq,\*(Aq, and tabulator characters\&. Thus conveniently if spaces are put at the beginning and the end of the fields they are ignored\&. However if the list separator is changed with the
\fIlistsep\fR
option, the spaces will become part of the actual item and the line will be most probably ignored\&. For this reason, it is not recommended to put spaces around the \*(Aq:\*(Aq characters\&.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.PP
\fBpam_access\fR(8),
\fBpam.d\fR(5),
\fBpam\fR(8)
.SH "AUTHORS"
.PP
Original
\fBlogin.access\fR(5)
manual was provided by Guido van Rooij which was renamed to
\fBaccess.conf\fR(5)
to reflect relation to default config file\&.
.PP
Network address / netmask description and example text was introduced by Mike Becher <mike\&.becher@lrz\-muenchen\&.de>\&.