path: root/libs/bigint/README
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authorClifford Wolf <>2013-02-27 09:32:19 +0100
committerClifford Wolf <>2013-02-27 09:32:19 +0100
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+Note by Clifford Wolf:
+This version of bigint was downloaded at 2012-08-29 from
+Some minor changes were made to the source code (e.g. "using"
+was added to access declarations to prohibit compiler warnings).
+ C++ Big Integer Library
+ (see ChangeLog for version)
+ Written and maintained by Matt McCutchen <>
+You can use this library in a C++ program to do arithmetic on integers of size
+limited only by your computer's memory. The library provides BigUnsigned and
+BigInteger classes that represent nonnegative integers and signed integers,
+respectively. Most of the C++ arithmetic operators are overloaded for these
+classes, so big-integer calculations are as easy as:
+ #include "BigIntegerLibrary.hh"
+ BigInteger a = 65536;
+ cout << (a * a * a * a * a * a * a * a);
+ (prints 340282366920938463463374607431768211456)
+The code in `' demonstrates the most important features of the library.
+To get started quickly, read the code and explanations in that file and run it.
+If you want more detail or a feature not shown in `', consult the
+consult the actual header and source files, which are thoroughly commented.
+This library emphasizes ease of use and clarity of implementation over speed;
+some users will prefer GMP (, which is faster. The code is
+intended to be reasonably portable across computers and modern C++ compilers; in
+particular, it uses whatever word size the computer provides (32-bit, 64-bit, or
+Compiling programs that use the library
+The library consists of a folder full of C++ header files (`.hh') and source
+files (`.cc'). Your own programs should `#include' the necessary header files
+and link with the source files. A makefile that builds the sample program
+(`') is included; you can adapt it to replace the sample with your own
+Alternatively, you can use your own build system or IDE. In that case, you must
+put the library header files where the compiler will find them and arrange to
+have your program linked with the library source files; otherwise, you will get
+errors about missing header files or "undefined references". To learn how to do
+this, consult the documentation for the build system or IDE; don't bother asking
+me. Adding all the library files to your project will work in many IDEs but may
+not be the most desirable approach.
+The library's Web site (above) provides links to released versions, the current
+development version, and a mailing list for release announcements, questions,
+bug reports, and other discussion of the library. I would be delighted to hear
+from you if you like this library and/or find a good use for it.
+Bugs and enhancements
+The library has been tested by me and others but is by no means bug-free. If
+you find a bug, please report it, whether it comes in the form of compiling
+trouble, a mathematically inaccurate result, or a memory-management blooper
+(since I use Java, these are altogether too common in my C++). I generally fix
+all reported bugs. You are also welcome to request enhancements, but I am
+unlikely to do substantial amounts of work on enhancements at this point.
+I, Matt McCutchen, the sole author of the original Big Integer Library, waive my
+copyright to it, placing it in the public domain. The library comes with
+absolutely no warranty.