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Getting Started
===============


Outline of a Yosys command
--------------------------

Here is a the C++ code for a "hello_world" Yosys command (hello.cc):

	#include "kernel/yosys.h"

	USING_YOSYS_NAMESPACE
	PRIVATE_NAMESPACE_BEGIN

	struct HelloWorldPass : public Pass {
		HelloWorldPass() : Pass("hello_world") { }
		virtual void execute(vector<string>, Design*) {
			log("Hello World!\n");
		}
	} HelloWorldPass;

	PRIVATE_NAMESPACE_END

This can be built into a Yosys module using the following command:

	yosys-config --exec --cxx --cxxflags --ldflags -o hello.so -shared hello.cc --ldlibs

And then executed using the following command:

	yosys -m hello.so -p hello_world


Yosys Data Structures
---------------------

Here is a short list of data structures that you should make yourself familiar
with before you write C++ code for Yosys. The following data structures are all
defined when "kernel/yosys.h" is included and USING_YOSYS_NAMESPACE is used.

  1. Yosys Container Classes

Yosys uses dict<K, T> and pool<T> as main container classes. dict<K, T> is
essentially a replacement for std::unordered_map<K, T> and pool<T> is
essentially a replacement for std::unordered_set<T>. The main differences are:

	- dict<K, T> and pool<T> are about 2x faster than the std containers

	- references to elements in a dict<K, T> or pool<T> are invalidated by
	  insert operations (just like you are used from std::vector<T>).

	- dict<K, T> and pool<T> will have the same order of iteration across
	  all compilers and architectures.

  2. Standard STL data types

In Yosys we use std::vector<T> and std::string whenever applicable. When
dict<K, T> and pool<T> are not suitable then std::map<K, T> and std::set<T>
are used instead.

The types std::vector<T> and std::string are also available as vector<T>
and string in the Yosys namespace.

  3. RTLIL objects

The current design (essentially a collection of modules, each defined by a
netlist) is stored in memory using RTLIL object (declared in kernel/rtlil.h,
automatically included by kernel/yosys.h). You should glance over at least
the declarations for the following types in kernel/rtlil.h:

	RTLIL::IdString
		This is a handle for an identifier (e.g. cell or wire name).
		It feels a lot like a std::string, but is only a single int
		in size. (The actual string is stored in a global lookup
		table.)

	RTLIL::SigBit
		A single signal bit. I.e. either a constant (0, 1, x, z) or
		a single bit from a wire.

	RTLIL::SigSpec
		Essentially a vector of SigBits.

	RTLIL::Wire
	RTLIL::Cell
		The building blocks of the netlist in a module.

	RTLIL::Module
	RTLIL::Design
		The module is a container with connected cells and wires
		in it. The design is a container with modules in it.

All this types are also available without the RTLIL:: prefix in the Yosys
namespace.

  4. SigMap and other Helper Classes

There are a couple of additional helper classes that are in wide use
in Yosys. Most importantly there is SigMap (declared in kernel.sigtools.h).

When a design has many wires in it that are connected to each other, then
a single signal bit can have multiple valid names. The SigMap object can
be used to map SigSpecs or SigBits to unique SigSpecs and SigBits that
consitently only uses one wire from a group of connected wires. For example:

	SigBit a = module->addWire(NEW_ID);
	SigBit b = module->addWire(NEW_ID);
	module->connect(a, b);

	log("%d\n", a == b); // will print 0

	SigMap sigmap(module);
	log("%d\n", sigmap(a) == sigmap(b)); // will print 1


Example Code
------------

The following yosys commands are a good starting point if you are looking for examples
of how to use the Yosys API:

	manual/CHAPTER_Prog/stubnets.cc
	passes/opt/wreduce.cc
	passes/techmap/maccmap.cc


Notes on the existing codebase
------------------------------

For historical reasons not all parts of Yosys adhere to the current coding
style. When adding code to existing parts of the system, adhere to this guide
for the new code instead of trying to mimic the style of the surrounding code.



Coding Style
============


Formatting of code
------------------

- Yosys code is using tabs for indentation. Tabs are 8 characters.

- A continuation of a statement in the following line is indented by
  two additional tabs.

- Lines are as long as you want them to be. A good rule of thumb is
  to break lines at about column 150.

- Opening braces can be put on the same or next line as the statement
  opening the block (if, switch, for, while, do). Put the opening brace
  on its own line for larger blocks, especially blocks that contains
  blank lines.

- Otherwise stick to the Linux Kernel Coding Stlye:
    https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/CodingStyle


C++ Langugage
-------------

Yosys is written in C++11. At the moment only constructs supported by
gcc 4.6 is allowed in Yosys code. This will change in future releases.

In general Yosys uses "int" instead of "size_t". To avoid compiler
warnings for implicit type casts, always use "GetSize(foobar)" instead
of "foobar.size()". (GetSize() is defined in kernel/yosys.h)

Use range-based for loops whenever applicable.



Creating the Visual Studio Template Project
===========================================

1. Create an empty Visual C++ Win32 Console App project

	Microsoft Visual Studio Express 2013 for Windows Desktop
	Open New Project Wizard (File -> New Project..)

	Project Name: YosysVS
	Solution Name: YosysVS
	[X] Create directory for solution
	[ ] Add to source control

	[X] Console applications
	[X] Empty Projcect
	[ ] SDL checks

2. Open YosysVS Project Properties

	Select Configuration: All Configurations

	C/C++ -> General -> Additional Include Directories
		Add: ..\yosys

	C/C++ -> Preprocessor -> Preprocessor Definitions
		Add: _YOSYS_;_CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS

3. Resulting file system tree:

	YosysVS/
	YosysVS/YosysVS
	YosysVS/YosysVS/YosysVS.vcxproj
	YosysVS/YosysVS/YosysVS.vcxproj.filters
	YosysVS/YosysVS.sdf
	YosysVS/YosysVS.sln
	YosysVS/YosysVS.v12.suo

4. Zip YosysVS as YosysVS-Tpl-v1.zip



Checklist for adding internal cell types
========================================

Things to do right away:

	- Add to kernel/celltypes.h (incl. eval() handling for non-mem cells)
	- Add to InternalCellChecker::check() in kernel/rtlil.cc
	- Add to techlibs/common/simlib.v
	- Add to techlibs/common/techmap.v

Things to do after finalizing the cell interface:

	- Add support to kernel/satgen.h for the new cell type
	- Add to manual/CHAPTER_CellLib.tex (or just add a fixme to the bottom)
	- Maybe add support to the verilog backend for dumping such cells as expression



Checklist for creating Yosys releases
=====================================

Update the CHANGELOG file:

	cd ~yosys
	gitk &
	vi CHANGELOG


Run all tests with "make config-{clang,gcc,gcc-4.6}":

	cd ~yosys
	make clean
	make test vloghtb
	make install

	cd ~yosys-bigsim
	make clean
	make full

	cd ~vloghammer
	make purge gen_issues gen_samples
	make SYN_LIST="yosys" SIM_LIST="icarus yosim verilator" REPORT_FULL=1 world
	chromium-browser report.html


Then with default config setting:

	cd ~yosys
	./yosys -p 'proc; show' tests/simple/fiedler-cooley.v
	./yosys -p 'proc; opt; show' tests/simple/fiedler-cooley.v
	./yosys -p 'synth; show' tests/simple/fiedler-cooley.v

	cd ~yosys
	make manual
	- sanity check the figures in the appnotes and presentation
	    - if there are any odd things -> investigate
	    - make cosmetic changes to the .tex files if necessary


Also with default config setting:

	cd ~yosys/techlibs/cmos
	bash testbench.sh

	cd ~yosys/techlibs/xilinx/example_sim_counter
	bash run_sim.sh

	cd ~yosys/techlibs/xilinx/example_mojo_counter
	bash example.sh


Finally if a current verific library is available:

	cd ~yosys
	cat frontends/verific/build_amd64.txt
	- follow instructions

	cd frontends/verific
	../../yosys test_navre.ys


Release candiate:

	- create branch yosys-x.y.z-rc and push to github
	- contact the usual suspects per mail and ask them to test
	- post on the reddit and ask people to test
	- commit KISS fixes to the -rc branch if necessary


Release:

	- set YOSYS_VER to x.y.z in Makefile
	- update version string in CHANGELOG
	git commit -am "Yosys x.y.z"

	- push tag to github
	- post changelog on github
	- post short release note on reddit
	- delete -rc branch from github


Updating the website:

	cd ~yosys
	make manual
	make install

	- update pdf files on the website

	cd ~yosys-web
	make update_cmd
	make update_show
	git commit -am update
	make push


In master branch:

	git merge {release-tag}
	- set version to x.y.z+ in Makefile
	- add section "Yosys x.y.z .. x.y.z+" to CHANGELOG
	git commit --amend -am "Yosys x.y.z+"